University of Oulu

Patro ER, Kishore TS, Haghighi AT. Levelized Cost of Electricity Generation by Small Hydropower Projects under Clean Development Mechanism in India. Energies. 2022; 15(4):1473.

Levelized cost of electricity generation by small hydropower projects under clean development mechanism in India

Saved in:
Author: Patro, Epari Ritesh1; Kishore, Teegala Srinivasa2; Torabi Haghighi, Ali1
Organizations: 1Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Electrical & Electronics Engineering, GMR Institute of Technology, Rajam 532127, India
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-04-25


Contrary to conventional fossil fuel-based electricity generation technologies, renewable energy centered technologies, specifically small hydropower, release a lesser amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but are normally more expensive. A major segment of the capital investment in the current small hydropower scenario accounts for equipment and construction process costs. The construction and cost administration process are generally limited to analysis of the capital cost of civil constructions, electro-mechanical equipment works, neglecting the costs related to operating and maintaining the plant, replacement or refurbishment, certified emission reductions, among others. Contemporary studies indicate that these costs form a substantial fraction of the total capital investment. Consequently, for cost management and investment decision making, small hydropower plant developers are drawing increased attention in recent years towards conducting life cycle costing studies that take into account the ignored costs. In addition, small hydropower plants in developing nations can become more competitive by trading the emission reductions achieved under the provision of the Clean Development Mechanism, an outcome of the Kyoto Protocol proposed at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. In this paper, a modest attempt has been made to determine the Levelized cost of electricity generation using life cycle costing methodology, which accounts for all the costs over operating lifetime on a range of small hydropower plants and the results are analyzed.

see all

Series: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
ISSN-E: 1996-1073
ISSN-L: 1996-1073
Volume: 15
Article number: 1473
DOI: 10.3390/en15041473
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
218 Environmental engineering
222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was funded by The University of Oulu and The Academy of Finland Profi4 318930.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (