University of Oulu

S.Yrjölä, P. Ahokangas and M. Matinmikko-Blue, "Value Creation and Capture From Technology Innovation in the 6G Era," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 16299-16319, 2022,

Value creation and capture from technology innovation in the 6G era

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Author: Yrjölä, Seppo1,2; Ahokangas, Petri3; Matinmikko-Blue, Marja2
Organizations: 1Nokia, 90620 Oulu, Finland
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-04-27


In the sixth generation of mobile communication networks (6G) era, in which the convergence of wireless and Internet technologies will drive the digital economy and automation across industries, the focus of innovation will shift from individual technology or products towards innovation within platforms and ecosystems. This paper provides a comprehensive categorised survey of the 6G business literature and the current state of mobile communication intellectual property value creation across the system architecture layers. The key emerging and enabling technologies of the 6G networks are positioned as applicable to areas of value creation and capture, and an outline of the proposed transformation of technology innovation by considering the 6G system architecture layers is provided. Unlike the existing 6G literature focusing on visions, use cases, KPI requirements, and KVI drivers, this study will extend the discussion to the value-creation-and-capture problem of technology innovators. The role of complementary assets, technology policy, standardisation, and intellectual property in 6G is analysed by profiting from innovation lenses. To gain the full potential and capture value from technology innovation in 6G, it is essential that regulators protect the intellectual property contributions to incentive R&D investments by the developers of open, collaborative enabling technologies. The paper further assesses the business model evolution from the 4G engineering platform to modular 5G and 6G, stemming from ecosystems and open value configurations. The results of the technology value analysis show the emerging 6G business to be an oblique hybrid of vertical and horizontal business models and characterise the future 6G networks as a general-purpose technology.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 16299 - 16319
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3149590
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Business Finland 5G-VIIMA Project, and in part by the 6G Flagship Program through the University of Oulu under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see