University of Oulu

Chen J, He F, Gao L, Guo S, Omran M and Chen G (2022) Rapid Preparation of Manganese Monoxide by Microwave-Enhanced Selective Carbothermal Reduction. Front. Energy Res. 10:845303. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2022.845303

Rapid preparation of manganese monoxide by microwave-enhanced selective carbothermal reduction

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Author: Chen, Jin1; He, Fei1; Gao, Lei1,2;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China
2Kunming Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, China
3Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo, Egypt
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-03


Most of the manganese resources in China have existed in the form of low-grade pyrolusite which is not utilized efficiently because of the high energy consumption and environmental pollution during the reduction process. Applying microwave heating to minerals reduction endows improved production efficiency and reduced production costs. In the present work, rapid preparation of manganese monoxide (MnO) was attempted through reducing low-grade pyrolusite with coal reducing agent by microwave heating, with the samples characterized by XRD, scanning electron microscopy, XPS as well as TG/DSC. The influences of the reduction reaction parameters on the reduction process of Mn in pyrolusite were comprehensively studied. The results indicated that higher temperatures and longer holding times facilitated the reduction roasting of pyrolusite, and manganese monoxide can be fabricated with a reduction ratio of 97.7% obtained at 650°C for 50 min. The mechanism of the gradual transformation of MnO2 to MnO from the macroscopic to the molecular level was also revealed in the order of MnO₂ → Mn₂O₃ → Mn₃O₄ → MnO. Compared to traditional roasting, the proposed microwave-enhanced roasting process benefits from the superior kinetic conditions provided by the synergy between microwave enhancement and compact pellets, and thus reduced the roasting temperature and roasting time.

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Series: Frontiers in energy research
ISSN: 2296-598X
ISSN-E: 2296-598X
ISSN-L: 2296-598X
Volume: 10
Article number: 845303
DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2022.845303
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors would like to acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. U1802255), the Hunan Provincial Science and Technology Plan Project, China (No. 2016TP1007), and the Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) at the University of Yunnan province for the financial support.
Copyright information: © 2022 Chen, He, Gao, Guo, Omran and Chen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.