University of Oulu

Ma A, Zheng X, Gao L, Li K, Omran M, Chen G. Investigations on the Thermodynamics Characteristics, Thermal and Dielectric Properties of Calcium-Activated Zinc-Containing Metallurgical Residues. Materials. 2022; 15(3):714.

Investigations on the thermodynamics characteristics, thermal and dielectric properties of calcium-activated zinc-containing metallurgical residues

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Author: Ma, Aiyuan1,2; Zheng, Xuemei1,2; Gao, Lei3;
Organizations: 1School of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Liupanshui Normal University, Liupanshui 553004, China
2Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Coal Clean Utilisation, Liupanshui Normal University, Liupanshui 553004, China
3Key Laboratory of Green-Chemistry Materials in University of Yunnan Province, Kunming Key Laboratory of Energy Materials Chemistry, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming 650500, China
4Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
5Process Metallurgy Research Group, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
6Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo 11421, Egypt
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 17.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-03


An activate pretreatment of zinc-containing metallurgical residues were proposed by adding CaO and introducing microwave heating approach into the CaO activation pretreatment process to realize the conversion of refractory ore phases into pre-treated ore phase. Thermodynamic characteristics analysis indicated that adding CaO can realize the conversion of refractory ore phases, with the same effect as the carbon additives. Thermal conductivity properties analysis denoted that the thermal conductivity properties of ZnS and ZnFe₂O₄ were relatively poor. Meanwhile, the thermal conductivity properties of the residues sample added with 25% CaO were significantly superior to the residues added with other CaO contents, with the maximum specific heat value of 1.348 J/g·K at 350 °C. Dielectric properties analysis highlighted that adding CaO with the dielectric constant properties significantly higher than that of other substances can enhance the microwave absorption capacity of zinc-containing residues. The decrease in dielectric loss and loss tangent value with the increase of temperature and the residues having large microwave penetration depth guaranteed to obtain better uniformity of microwave heating. Furthermore, adding 25% CaO promoted the microwave penetration depth of the residues sample increased in the range of 300–500 °C. This work can lay a theoretical research foundation for solving the key difficulty for efficient Zn recovery from complex zinc-containing metallurgical residues.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 15
Issue: 3
Article number: 714
DOI: 10.3390/ma15030714
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the Guizhou Province Science and Technology Project (No. [2019]1444, No. [2020]2001), the Guizhou Provincial Colleges and Universities Science and Technology Talent Project (KY [2020]124), the Science and Technology Innovation Group of Liupanshui Normal University (LPSSYKJTD201801), the Key cultivation disciplines of Liupanshui Normal University (LPSSYZDXK202001).
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (