University of Oulu

Li, J., Mailhiot, S., Sreenivasan, H., Kantola, A. M., Telkki, V.-V., & Kinnunen, P. (2022). 129Xe NMR analysis reveals efficient gas transport between inborn micro-, meso- and macropores in geopolymers. Cement and Concrete Research, 155, 106779.

129Xe NMR analysis reveals efficient gas transport between inborn micro-, meso- and macropores in geopolymers

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Author: Li, Jing1,2; Mailhiot, Sarah2; Sreenivasan, Harisankar1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
2NMR Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-20


Geopolymers are alumino-silicates with inborn mesoporous structures. For construction applications, the knowledge on the porous structure and fluid dynamics is important. In this work, the interconnected pore structures of metakaolin-based geopolymers and dynamics of guest molecules were studied by 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), by exploiting the high sensitivity of the 129Xe chemical shift to its local environment. The 129Xe NMR spectra revealed three different pore structures experienced by xenon gas in the geopolymers: the first associated with microporous zeolite-analogous cages (≤2 nm), the second with the mesopores (2–50 nm) and the third with free Xe in larger voids. The sizes of mesopores, heat of adsorption as well as pore connectivity were determined as a function of water-to-solid (w/s) ratio. The results show that the pore structures can be tailored by changing the w/s ratio, providing tunability both for potential construction, catalysis, and adsorbent applications.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 155
Article number: 106779
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106779
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: P.K. acknowledges financial support from University of Oulu (Kvantum institutes Emerging projects-program and Profi5/326291) and Academy of Finland (grants 322085, 329477 and Profi5/326291). V.-V.T. acknowledges the financial support of the European Research Council (ERC) under Horizon 2020 (H2020/2018-2022/ERC grant agreement no. 772110) and Kvantum Institute (University of Oulu). S.M. acknowledges the financial support of Academy of Finland (grant 321701).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322085
Detailed Information: 322085 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
329477 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321701 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Supplementary data to this article can be found online at
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (