University of Oulu

J. Kostamovaara, S. Jahromi, L. Hallman, G. Duan, J. -P. Jansson and P. Keränen, "Solid-State Pulsed Time-of-Flight 3-D Range Imaging Using CMOS SPAD Focal Plane Array Receiver and Block-Based Illumination Techniques," in IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1-11, April 2022, Art no. 6817911, doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2022.3153487

Solid-state pulsed time-of-flight 3-D range imaging using CMOS SPAD focal plane array receiver and block-based illumination techniques

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Author: Kostamovaara, Juha1; Jahromi, Sahba1; Hallman, Lauri1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Circuits and Systems Research Unit, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-04


Full realization of a solid-state 3-D range imager based on the pulsed time-of-flight method is presented. The system uses block-based segmented illumination in the transmitter realized with a 16-element common anode laser diode bar. The receiver is based on a single chip 2-D SPAD/TDC 0.35 μm CMOS array with 32 × 128 SPAD pixels and 257 TDCs. Segmentation of the illumination improves the SN BG R in the detection and results in simpler receiver realization than in the commonly used flood-illumination approach. The system is capable of producing cm-accurate 3-D range images within a FOV of 40° × 10° up to a range of 15 m in normal office lighting at a frame rate of ∼30 fps using a low average illumination power of only 2.6 mW. In background illumination of ∼20 klux, 3-D range images were captured at a distance of ∼13 m using the gated SPAD approach at a frame rate of ∼1 fps.

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Series: IEEE photonics journal
ISSN: 1943-0655
ISSN-E: 1943-0647
ISSN-L: 1943-0655
Volume: 14
Issue: 2
Pages: 1 - 11
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2022.3153487
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland under Grant 339997.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 339997
Detailed Information: 339997 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see