University of Oulu

Moukannaa, S., Kursula, K., Perumal, P., Ohenoja, K., & Illikainen, M. (2022). Recycling of precast concrete waste sludge with paper mill and biomass ashes for lightweight granulated aggregate production. Frontiers in Materials, 9, 877160.

Recycling of precast concrete waste sludge with paper mill and biomass ashes for lightweight granulated aggregate production

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Author: Moukannaa, Samira1; Kursula, Kalle1; Perumal, Priyadharshini1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit (FPERU), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-10


The construction and demolition waste generation is increasingly evolving with the rapid urbanization, with more than a quarter of the produced waste being landfilled without further treatment or recycling strategy. Hence, sustainable management and valorization methods such as recycling in construction materials is becoming increasingly essential to tackle the economic and environmental burdens of landfilling waste. Construction and demolition waste recycling has been intensively studied. However, the present study proposes a promising solution for recycling construction and demolition wastes (CDWs) from the precast concrete waste sludge and ashes from paper mill sludge and biomass. Artificial lightweight aggregates were designed and produced by alkali activating a mixture of 50–90 wt% of dried and milled CDW with 3–25 wt% of ash and 5–35 wt% of blast furnace slag. The properties of the produced aggregates were assessed via density, water absorption, porosity, and crushing tests, in addition to microstructural characterizations using XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis. The optimum NaOH concentration was 8M with the highest mechanical properties and lowest efflorescence. The produced aggregates revealed a high crushing force of 82 N at 28 days with 50 wt% CDW, 15 wt% biomass ash, and 25 wt% blast furnace slag presenting a possible recycling pathway for such side-stream materials.

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Series: Frontiers in materials
ISSN: 2296-8016
ISSN-E: 2296-8016
ISSN-L: 2296-8016
Volume: 9
Article number: 877160
DOI: 10.3389/fmats.2022.877160
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the financial support received for the project DeConcrete Eco-Efficient Arctic technologies cooperation funded by the Kolarctic CBC initiative of the European Union (KO 4068).
Copyright information: Copyright © 2022 Moukannaa, Kursula, Perumal, Ohenoja and Illikainen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.