University of Oulu

Abdelrahim, A., Nguyen, H., Omran, M. et al. Development of Cold-Bonded Briquettes Using By-Product-Based Ettringite Binder from Ladle Slag. J. Sustain. Metall. 8, 468–487 (2022).

Development of cold-bonded briquettes using by-product-based ettringite binder from ladle slag

Saved in:
Author: Abdelrahim, Ahmed1; Nguyen, Hoang2; Omran, Mamdouh1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
2Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran Katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-16


The recycling of steel plant side streams through cold-bonded briquettes has become quite common. However, Portland cement is mainly used as a binder in the briquettes, contributing significantly to the energy consumption, costs, and carbon footprint associated with the production of cold-bonded briquettes. This paper reports on a more sustainable method for side stream recycling that involves replacing cement with an ettringite-based binder. Ettringite binders develop early high strength and mainly consist of ladle slag, another side stream of the industry. Here, the ettringite-based binder is assessed in terms of its mechanical and thermal properties against a reference briquette made using the conventional technique. Three different briquette types are produced using several side stream materials and varying ettringite-based binder content. Briquettes produced using 15% and higher ettringite-based binder content exhibited excellent mechanical properties within a shorter curing period compared to conventional used binder. Moreover, the ettringite-based binder briquettes exhibited a better swelling behavior to conventional cement briquettes under conditions simulating a blast furnace.

see all

Series: Journal of sustainable metallurgy
ISSN: 2199-3823
ISSN-E: 2199-3831
ISSN-L: 2199-3823
Volume: 8
Pages: 468 - 487
DOI: 10.1007/s40831-022-00511-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This work was supported by Business Finland through SYMMET Project (4236/31/2018), Kvantum institute (University of Oulu), and Academy of Finland [Grant Nos. 322085, 329477 and 326291]. The Finnish Cultural Foundation (Grant No.: 60212342/2021), Walter Ahlström Foundation, and Olvi Foundation are acknowledged for their financial support. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322085
Detailed Information: 322085 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
329477 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit