University of Oulu

O. L. A. López, B. Clerckx and M. Latva-Aho, "Dynamic RF Combining for Multi-Antenna Ambient Energy Harvesting," in IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 493-497, March 2022, doi: 10.1109/LWC.2021.3133623

Dynamic RF combining for multi-antenna ambient energy harvesting

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Author: López, Onel L. A.1; Clerckx, Bruno2; Latva-Aho, Matti1
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, U.K.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-17


Ambient radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) technology is key to realize self-sustainable, always-on, low-power, massive Internet of Things networks. Typically, rigid (non-adaptable to channel fluctuations) multi-antenna receive architectures are proposed to support reliable EH operation. Herein, we introduce a dynamic RF combining architecture for ambient RF EH use cases, and exemplify the attainable performance gains via three simple phase shifts’ exploration mechanisms, namely, brute force (BF), sequential testing (ST) and codebook based (CB). Among the proposed mechanisms, BF demands the highest power consumption, while CB requires the highest-resolution phase shifters, thus tipping the scales in favor of ST. Finally, we show that the performance gains of ST over a rigid RF combining scheme increase with the number of receive antennas and energy transmitters’ deployment density.

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Series: IEEE wireless communications letters
ISSN: 2162-2337
ISSN-E: 2162-2345
ISSN-L: 2162-2337
Volume: 11
Issue: 3
Pages: 493 - 497
DOI: 10.1109/LWC.2021.3133623
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland through 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see