University of Oulu

Ponomar, V., Yliniemi, J., Adesanya, E., Ohenoja, K., & Illikainen, M. (2022). An overview of the utilisation of Fe-rich residues in alkali-activated binders: Mechanical properties and state of iron. Journal of Cleaner Production, 330, 129900.

An overview of the utilisation of Fe-rich residues in alkali-activated binders : mechanical properties and state of iron

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Author: Ponomar, Vitalii1; Yliniemi, Juho1; Adesanya, Elijah1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-05-17


Iron-rich alkali-activated materials (Fe-AAM) are considered potential alternatives to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to limit CO₂ emissions and convert several metallurgical wastes into useful products. Unlike conventional aluminosilicate alkali-activated systems in which the role of the precursor’s main constituents and the reaction products are well defined to some extent, the limited knowledge of the role and state of iron in AAMs restricts its utilisation in the construction sector. Nevertheless, several studies have shown the ability of iron to participate in the formation of alkali-activation reaction products, which induces high compressive strength (over 100 MPa) and provides both environmental and material performance benefits. In this study, we critically evaluate existing data on Fe-rich raw materials, activators, co-binders, mechanical properties, curing types and the reactivity and role of iron in Fe-AAMs.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 330
Article number: 129900
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.129900
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was conducted under the auspices of the ARCTIC-ecocrete project, which was supported by the Interreg Nord EU programme and the Regional Council of Lapland. Also, Elijah Adesanya was supported by the Finnish Cultural Foundation for postdoctoral research grants (grant #00201230). Juho Yliniemi acknowledges the Academy of Finland (grant # 322786).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322786
Detailed Information: 322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (