University of Oulu

Shu, Q., You, C., Alatarvas, T., & Fabritius, T. M. J. (2022). Experimental and Modeling Study of Deformability of Glassy CaO-(MnO)-Al2O3-SiO2 Inclusions. Metals, 12(3), 522.

Experimental and modeling study of deformability of glassy CaO-(MnO)-Al2O3-SiO2 inclusions

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Author: Shu, Qifeng1; You, Chaoge2; Alatarvas, Tuomas1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-28


The occurrence of non-deformable, non-metallic inclusions is the dominant reason for failure of wire during drawing and degrades service life for some steel grades, e.g., tire cord steel. To investigate the deformability of glassy inclusions in CaO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ and MnO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ systems, experimental and numerical methods were used. Young’s modulus values of some glasses based on the CaO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ and MnO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ systems, which correspond to typical inclusions in tire cord steel, were measured with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. The effect of basicity, defined as the ratio of mass percentage of CaO to SiO₂, on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio were investigated. The Young’s moduli of glasses are enhanced with increasing basicity, which could be attributed to the high field strength of calcium ions. The Poisson’s ratios of glasses also show an increase tendency with increasing basicity, which could be due to the loss of rigidity of network with introduction of calcium ions. The equations in the literature for Young’s modulus calculation were evaluated based on the present and literature data. Appen’s equation is modified by re-fitting the present and literature data to give accurate estimation of Young’s modulus with the mean deviation of 2%. The iso-Young’s modulus diagrams for CaO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ systems were constructed. It is proposed that the iso-Young’s modulus diagram could be combined with liquid area in CaO-Al₂O₃-SiO₂ ternary phase diagram to optimize the inclusion composition during both hot rolling and cold drawing.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 12
Issue: 3
Article number: 522
DOI: 10.3390/met12030522
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was funded by the Academy of Finland for Genome of Steel Grant (No. 311934) and Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC contract no. 51774026)
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( 4.0/)