University of Oulu

Zhang, R., Zhang, B., & Leiviskä, T. (2022). Vanadium recovery from spent iron sorbent used for the treatment of mining-influenced water. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 182, 106291.

Vanadium recovery from spent iron sorbent used for the treatment of mining-influenced water

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Author: Zhang, Ruichi1; Zhang, Baogang2; Leiviskä, Tiina1
Organizations: 1Chemical Process Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2School of Water Resources and Environment, MOE Key Laboratory of Groundwater Circulation and Environmental Evolution, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, P. R. China
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: embargoed
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2024-03-21


Vanadium was recovered successfully from spent iron sorbent (ferric oxyhydroxide, CFH-12) using a two-step process including alkaline leaching and precipitation with CaCl₂. The spent CFH-12 was collected from a field study in which a filter system was used to remove vanadium from mining-influenced water (referred to as MIW-treated CFH-12). Fresh CFH-12 was treated with synthetic vanadium solution (SVS-treated CFH-12) to compare the recovery process with the field study. First, a full factorial design was performed to optimize the precipitation process using synthetic leaching solution. The optimal conditions were found to be two times the theoretical dosage of CaCl₂, a precipitation temperature of 60°C, and a precipitation pH of 12.7. Vanadium desorption from the spent sorbents was conducted using 1 M NaOH, a contact time of 30 minutes and a CFH-12 solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.15 kg/L. The results revealed that vanadium could be efficiently precipitated from the leaching solution of MIW-treated CFH-12 and SVS-treated CFH-12. A higher dosage of CaCl₂ was required to recover vanadium from MIW-treated CFH-12 due to the complexity of the leaching solution, which resulted in a lower vanadium content in the product. XRD analysis showed that the product recovered from SVS-treated CFH-12 mainly contained Ca₅(VO₄)₃OH and a small amount of CaCO₃. TEM images revealed that the calcium vanadate hydroxide particles were round in shape, about 0.2–0.4 µm in size and formed aggregates. The product recovered from MIW-treated CFH-12 contained amorphous calcium vanadate and crystalline Ca(OH)₂. XPS analysis confirmed that vanadium existed as V⁵⁺ in all of the recovered products.

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Series: Resources, conservation & recycling
ISSN: 0921-3449
ISSN-E: 1879-0658
ISSN-L: 0921-3449
Volume: 182
Article number: 106291
DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2022.106291
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was funded by the VanProd project “Innovation for enhanced production of vanadium from waste streams in the Nordic Region”. The authors express their sincere gratitude to the European Union program Interreg Nord 2014–2020 and the Regional Council of Lapland for the financial support of this study. Part of the work was carried out with the support of the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from Maa-ja vesitekniikan tuki ry and Tauno Tönning Foundation. The work was also conducted as part of the Supporting Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts of Mining Activity (KO1030 SEESIMA) research project and received financial support from the Kolarctic CBC (Cross-Border Collaboration), the European Union, Russia, Norway, Finland and Sweden.
Copyright information: © 2022. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http:/