University of Oulu

Palmu, J., Tikkanen, E., Havulinna, A. S., Vartiainen, E., Lundqvist, A., Ruuskanen, M. O., Perola, M., Ala-Korpela, M., Jousilahti, P., Würtz, P., Salomaa, V., Lahti, L., & Niiranen, T. (2021). Comprehensive biomarker profiling of hypertension in 36 985 Finnish individuals. Journal of Hypertension, 40(3), 579-587.

Comprehensive biomarker profiling of hypertension in 36 985 Finnish individuals

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Author: Palmu, Joonatan1,2; Tikkanen, Emmi3; Havulinna, Aki S.2,4;
Organizations: 1Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku
2Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare
3Nightingale Health Plc
4Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), HiLIFE, Helsinki
5Department of Computing, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
6Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
7Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki
8Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu and Biocenter Oulu
9Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu
10NMR Metabolomics Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Wolters Kluwer, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-29


Objective: Previous studies on the association between metabolic biomarkers and hypertension have been limited by small sample sizes, low number of studied biomarkers, and cross-sectional study design. In the largest study to date, we assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between high-abundance serum biomarkers and blood pressure (BP).

Methods: We studied cross-sectional (N = 36 985; age 50.5 ± 14.2; 53.1% women) and longitudinal (N = 4197; age 49.4 ± 11.8, 55.3% women) population samples of Finnish individuals. We included 53 serum biomarkers and other detailed lipoprotein subclass measures in our analyses. We studied the associations between serum biomarkers and BP using both conventional statistical methods and a machine learning algorithm (gradient boosting) while adjusting for clinical risk factors.

Results: Fifty-one of 53 serum biomarkers were cross-sectionally related to BP (adjusted P < 0.05 for all). Conventional linear regression modeling demonstrated that LDL cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and acetate were positively, and HDL particle size was negatively, associated with SBP change over time (adjusted P < 0.05 for all). Adding serum biomarkers (cross-sectional root-mean-square error: 16.27 mmHg; longitudinal: 17.61 mmHg) in the model with clinical measures (cross-sectional: 16.70 mmHg; longitudinal 18.52 mmHg) improved the machine learning model fit. Glucose, albumin, triglycerides in LDL, glycerol, VLDL particle size, and acetoacetate had the highest importance scores in models related to current or future BP.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that serum lipids, and particularly LDL-derived and VLDL-derived cholesterol measures, and glucose metabolism abnormalities are associated with hypertension onset. Use of serum metabolite determination could improve identification of individuals at high risk of developing hypertension.

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Series: Journal of hypertension
ISSN: 0263-6352
ISSN-E: 1473-5598
ISSN-L: 0263-6352
Volume: 40
Issue: 3
Pages: 579 - 587
DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000003051
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.