University of Oulu

Hamada, A., Khosravifard, A., Ghosh, S. et al. High-Speed Erichsen Testing of Grain-Refined 301LN Austenitic Stainless Steel Processed by Double-Reversion Annealing. Metall Mater Trans A 53, 2174–2194 (2022).

High-speed Erichsen testing of grain-refined 301LN austenitic stainless steel processed by double-reversion annealing

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Author: Hamada, Atef1; Khosravifard, Ali2; Ghosh, Sumit3;
Organizations: 1Kerttu Saalasti Institute, Future Manufacturing Technologies (FMT), University of Oulu, Pajatie 5, 85500, Nivala, Finland
2Department of Advanced Calculations, Chemical, Petroleum & Polymer Engineering Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz Branch, Box 71993-1, Shiraz, Iran
3Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 10.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-10


Austenitic Cr–Ni stainless-type 301LN steel was subjected to a double-reversion annealing (DRA) treatment to develop bulk grain-refined microstructures. The tensile properties and formability of the DRA structures were determined by high-speed tensile and Erichsen cupping tests at a strain rate of 1.5 s⁻¹ (50 mm s⁻¹) and compared with those of coarse-grained steel. Detailed microstructural features of the DRA structures were characterized using the electron backscatter diffraction technique and X-ray diffraction analysis. The DRA structures achieved by annealing for 1 second at 800 °C and 900 °C exhibited a superior combination of yield (~ 950 and 770 MPa, respectively) and tensile (~ 1050 and 950 MPa, respectively) strengths and ductility (~ 35 and 40 pct, respectively, as well as reasonable Erichsen index values under high-speed biaxial strain. Due to adiabatic heating, the DRA structures had higher austenite stability during high-speed stretch forming, i.e., were less prone to strain-induced martensitic transformation. The finite-element method (FEM) was used to conduct coupled field thermomechanical analyses of the high-speed deformation processes for the coarse-grained and DRA structures. Comparison of the FEM analyses with the experimental results revealed a considerable influence (~ 20 pct) of martensitic transformation on the adiabatic temperature rise. The balance of the yield strength and Erichsen index value of the developed nanograined microstructure is comparable to that of coarse-grained commercial steel.

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Series: Metallurgical and materials transactions. A, Physical metallurgy and materials science
ISSN: 1073-5623
ISSN-E: 1543-1940
ISSN-L: 1073-5623
Volume: 53
Issue: 6
Pages: 2174 - 2194
DOI: 10.1007/s11661-022-06659-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The authors express their gratitude to the Interreg Nord Program and the Regional Council of Lapland for funding this research through the InTeMP project, No. NYPS 20202486. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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