University of Oulu

Santoso, I., Riihimäki, M., Sibarani, D., Taskinen, P., Hupa, L., Paek, M.-K., & Lindberg, D. (2022). Impact of recently discovered sodium calcium silicate solutions on the phase diagrams of relevance for glass-ceramics in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 42(5), 2449–2463.

Impact of recently discovered sodium calcium silicate solutions on the phase diagrams of relevance for glass-ceramics in the Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂ system

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Author: Santoso, Imam1; Riihimäki, Markus2; Sibarani, David3;
Organizations: 1Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
2Faculty of Technology, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Oulu University, Oulu, Finland
3School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
4Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-17


Although phase relations in the Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂ system are vital to melting and thermal treatments in glass and glass-ceramics industries, the available data for thermodynamic modeling are mostly based on reports published in 1920s and 1950s. The present investigation verifies the formation of solid solutions of Na₂CaSiO₄ and Na₂Ca₂Si₂O₇ which have previously assumed to be stoichiometric compounds. The impact of these solid solutions on the features of the phase diagram were investigated using the equilibration-quenching-EDS/EPMA technique. The data were reported as liquidus projections and in isothermal sections within the temperature range of 1000 and 1400 °C. Ten primary phase fields were identified, namely SiO₂, Na₂Ca₃Si₆O₁₆, combeite, Na₄CaSi₃O₉ss, CaSiO₃, Na₂CaSiO₄ss, Na₂Ca₂Si₂O₇ss, Na₂Ca₆Si₄O₁₅, Ca₃Si₂O₇ and Ca₂SiO₄. In addition, some novel liquidus data and invariants points were examined in more detail. The fundamental data obtained can be employed for the thermodynamic reassessment of the Na₂O-CaO-SiO₂ system. The present study also discusses the findings and their impact on melting and annealing processes during the manufacture of glass and glass-ceramics.

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Series: Journal of the European Ceramic Society
ISSN: 0955-2219
ISSN-E: 1873-619X
ISSN-L: 0955-2219
Volume: 42
Issue: 5
Pages: 2449 - 2463
DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2022.01.010
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The study was financially supported by the FLASH project (Predicting the flow behavior of ash mixtures for production of transport biofuels in the circular economy, grant number 280892) within the EnergiX program by the Norwegian Research Council, Norway and also by the Symbiosis of metals production and nature (SYMMET) project of Business Finland. Academy of Finland’s RawMatTERS Finland Infrastructure (RAMI) based at Aalto University, VTT Technical Research Centre and Geological Survey of Finland, were applied in this research.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (