University of Oulu

Amin, S., Khan, M.A. & Mehmood, W. Probing Environmental Sustainability Through the Diversity-Pollution Nexus—a Global Perspective via PM2.5 and NO2. Water Air Soil Pollut 233, 58 (2022).

Probing environmental sustainability through the diversity-pollution nexus : a global perspective via PM2.5 and NO2

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Author: Amin, Saqib1; Khan, Mujahid Ameen2; Mehmood, Waqas3
Organizations: 1Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Metallurgy, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
3School of Economic, Finance and Banking, University of Utara Malaysia, Changlun, Malaysia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-30


This paper analyzes the effects of ethnic and religious diversity on air pollution for 187 countries around the world (categorized into high-income, middle-income and low-income countries) from 1990 to 2020. We determine the long-run relationship between the variables using panel-fixed effects and GMM models. Air pollution emission factors are spatially explicit into emissions of particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and the Alesina’s fragmentation index has been used to calculate ethnic and religious diversity. The results show that ethnic and religious diversity both have significant negative impacts on air pollution (PM2.5 and NO₂). Furthermore, the results are more significant for high-income and middle-income countries and vice versa for low-income countries. This study suggests that diversity is a natural phenomenon; however, its disastrous effects may be curtailed by providing equal opportunities and promoting a peaceful society, as done in high-income countries, to ensure the well-being of the people through cohesiveness. Policymakers need to promote collective action and communication among different groups while acknowledging that investment for public benefits often requires broad social consensus and solidarity.

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Series: Water, air & soil pollution
ISSN: 0049-6979
ISSN-E: 1573-2932
ISSN-L: 0049-6979
Volume: 233
Article number: 58
DOI: 10.1007/s11270-022-05518-8
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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