University of Oulu

Mörstedt, T. F., Viitanen, A., Vadimov, V., Sevriuk, V., Partanen, M., Hyyppä, E., Catelani, G., Silveri, M., Tan, K. Y., Möttönen, M., Recent Developments in Quantum-Circuit Refrigeration. ANNALEN DER PHYSIK 2022, 534, 2100543.

Recent developments in quantum-circuit refrigeration

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Author: Mörstedt, Timm Fabian1; Viitanen, Arto1; Vadimov, Vasilii1;
Organizations: 1QCD Labs, QTF Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto, Finland
2IQM, 02150 Espoo, Finland
3JARA Institute for Quantum Information (PGI-11), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
4Quantum Research Center, Technology Innovation Institute, Abu Dhabi, 9639 United Arab Emirates
5Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-13


The recent progress in direct active cooling of the quantum-electric degrees of freedom in engineered circuits, or quantum-circuit refrigeration is reviewed. In 2017, the discovery of a quantum-circuit refrigerator (QCR) based on photon-assisted tunneling of quasiparticles through normal-metal–insulator–superconductor junctions inspired a series of experimental studies demonstrating the following main properties: i) the direct-current (dc) bias voltage of the junction can change the QCR-induced damping rate of a superconducting microwave resonator by orders of magnitude and give rise to nontrivial Lamb shifts, ii) the damping rate can be controlled in nanosecond time scales, and ii) the dc bias can be replaced by a microwave excitation, the amplitude of which controls the induced damping rate. Theoretically, it is predicted that state-of-the-art superconducting resonators and qubits can be reset with an infidelity lower than 10⁻⁴ in tens of nanoseconds using experimentally feasible parameters. A QCR-equipped resonator has also been demonstrated as an incoherent photon source with an output temperature above 1 K yet operating at millikelvin. This source has been used to calibrate cryogenic amplification chains. In the future, the QCR may be experimentally used to quickly reset superconducting qubits, and hence assist in the great challenge of building a practical quantum computer.

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Series: Annalen der Physik
ISSN: 0003-3804
ISSN-E: 1521-3889
ISSN-L: 0003-3804
Volume: 534
Issue: 7
Article number: 2100543
DOI: 10.1002/andp.202100543
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
Funding: This work was financially supported by the Finnish Cultural Foundation, the Academy of Finland under Grant No. 318937 and under its Centres of Excellence Program (project No. 312300), and the European Research Council under Grant Nos. 681311 (QUESS) and 957440 (SCAR).
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Annalen der Physik published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.