University of Oulu

Shamsuri Agus ANS, Sabapathy T, Jusoh M, Abdelghany MA, Hossain K, Padmanathan S, Al-Bawri SS, Soh PJ. Combined RIS and EBG Surfaces Inspired Meta-Wearable Textile MIMO Antenna Using Viscose-Wool Felt. Polymers. 2022; 14(10):1989.

Combined RIS and EBG surfaces inspired meta-wearable textile MIMO antenna using viscose-wool felt

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Author: Shamsuri Agus, Amira Nur Suraya1,2; Sabapathy, Thennarasan1,2; Jusoh, Muzammil1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering (ACE), Centre of Excellence, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Jalan Tiga, Pengkalan Jaya Business Centre, Kangar 01000, Malaysia
2Faculty of Electronic Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kampus Alam UniMAP Pauh Putra, Arau 02600, Malaysia
3Department of General Educational Development, Faculty of Science and Information Technology (FSIT), Daffodil International University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
4Electrical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Wadi Addwasir 11991, Saudi Arabia
5Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61519, Egypt
6Faculty of Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-2815 Gjøvik, Norway
7Space Science Centre, Climate Change Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia
8Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-06-13


In this paper, we present a textile multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) antenna designed with a metamaterial inspired reactive impedance surface (RIS) and electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) using viscose-wool felt. Rectangular RIS was used as a reflector to improve the antenna gain and bandwidth to address well known crucial challenges—maintaining gain while reducing mutual coupling in MIMO antennas. The RIS unit cell was designed to achieve inductive impedance at the center frequency of 2.45 GHz with a reflection phase of 177.6°. The improved bandwidth of 170 MHz was achieved by using a square shaped RIS under a rectangular patch antenna, and this also helped to attain an additional gain of 1.29 dBi. When the antenna was implemented as MIMO, a split ring resonator backed by strip line type EBG was used to minimize the mutual coupling between the antenna elements. The EBG offered a sufficient band gap region from 2.37 GHz to 2.63 GHz. Prior to fabrication, bending analysis was carried out to validate the performance of the reflection coefficient (S₁₁) and transmission coefficient (S₂₁). The results of the analysis show that bending conditions have very little impact on antenna performance in terms of S-parameters. The effect of strip line supported SRR-based EBG was further analyzed with the fabricated prototype to clearly show the advantage of the designed EBG towards the mutual coupling reduction. The designed MIMO-RIS-EBG array-based antenna revealed an S₂₁ reduction of −9.8 dB at 2.45 GHz frequency with overall S₂₁ of <−40 dB. The results also indicated that the proposed SRR-EBG minimized the mutual coupling while keeping the mean effective gain (MEG) variations of <3 dB at the desired operating band. The specific absorption rate (SAR) analysis showed that the proposed design is not harmful to human body as the values are less than the regulated SAR. Overall, the findings in this study indicate the potential of the proposed MIMO antenna for microwave applications in a wearable format.

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Series: Polymers
ISSN: 2073-4360
ISSN-E: 2073-4360
ISSN-L: 2073-4360
Volume: 14
Issue: 10
Article number: 1989
DOI: 10.3390/polym14101989
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (