University of Oulu

Durall Gazulla, E., Martins, L. & Fernández-Ferrer, M. Designing learning technology collaboratively: Analysis of a chatbot co-design. Educ Inf Technol 28, 109–134 (2023).

Designing learning technology collaboratively : analysis of a chatbot co-design

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Author: Durall Gazulla, Eva1; Martins, Ludmila2; Fernández-Ferrer, Maite3
Organizations: 1INTERACT Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Learning, Media & Social Interactions, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
3Learning, Media & Social Interactions, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-07-01


Collaborative design approaches have been increasingly adopted in the design of learning technologies since they contribute to develop pedagogically inclusive and appropriate learning designs. Despite the positive reception of collaborative design strategies in technology-enhanced learning, little attention has been dedicated to analyzing the challenges faced in design processes using a collaborative approach. In this paper, we disclose the collaborative design of a chatbot for self-regulated learning in higher education using an action research approach. We analyze the design process of EDUguia chatbot, which includes diverse evidence from questionnaires and workshops with students and lecturers, as well as intermediary design objects. Based on the qualitative analysis, we identify several challenges that are transversal to the co-design work, as well as specific to the design phases. We critically reflect on the strategies deployed to overcome these challenges and how they relate to decision-making processes, highlighting the need to make stakeholders’ tacit knowledge explicit, cultivate trust-building and support democratic decision-making in technology design processes. We believe that the recommendations we present in this paper contribute to developing best practices in the collaborative design of chatbots for the self-regulation of learning, as well as learning technology in general.

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Series: Education and information technologies
ISSN: 1360-2357
ISSN-E: 1573-7608
ISSN-L: 1360-2357
Volume: 28
Pages: 109 - 134
DOI: 10.1007/s10639-022-11162-w
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This contribution has been supported by Project “Análisis de los efectos de la provisión de feedback soportado por tecnologias digitales de monitoreo sobre las competencias transversales (Referencia PID2019-104285GB-I00). Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN). Agencia Estatal de Investigación. The writing of this research paper has been conducted in the context of the GenZ project, a strategic profiling project in human sciences at the University of Oulu. The project is supported by the Academy of Finland (grant agreement No. 318930, Profi4) and the University of Oulu. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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