University of Oulu

Iljana M, Abdelrahim A, Bartusch H, Fabritius T. Reduction of Acid Iron Ore Pellets under Simulated Wall and Center Conditions in a Blast Furnace Shaft. Minerals. 2022; 12(6):741.

Reduction of acid iron ore pellets under simulated wall and center conditions in a blast furnace shaft

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Author: Iljana, Mikko1; Abdelrahim, Ahmed1; Bartusch, Hauke2;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2VDEh-Betriebsforschungsinstitut GmbH, Sohnstraße 69, DE-40237 Düsseldorf, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 53.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-07-05


The operational conditions, including temperature and gas composition, vary along the radial position in a blast furnace. Nevertheless, very few studies can be found in the literature that discuss how the reduction behavior of the ferrous burden varies along the radial position. In this study, the effect of the radial charging position on the reducibility of acid iron ore pellets was investigated using a laboratory-scale, high-temperature furnace in CO-CO₂-N₂ and CO-CO₂-H₂-H₂O-N₂ atmospheres up to 1100 °C. The experimental conditions were accumulated based on earlier measurements from a multi-point vertical probing campaign that was performed for a center-working European blast furnace. The main finding of this study is that the pellet reduction proceeded faster under simulated blast furnace conditions resembling those in the center area, compared to the wall area, because of a higher share of CO and H₂ in the gas. Therefore, the pellet charging position affects its reduction path in a blast furnace. Additionally, it was shown that the presence of H₂ and H₂O in the reducing gas enhanced the progress of reduction reactions significantly and enhanced the formation of cracks slightly, both of which are desirable in blast furnace operation. The reducibility data attained in this study are important in understanding how temperature and gas composition is connected to the reduction degree under realistic process conditions.

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Series: Minerals
ISSN: 2075-163X
ISSN-E: 2075-163X
ISSN-L: 2075-163X
Volume: 12
Issue: 6
Article number: 741
DOI: 10.3390/min12060741
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This research was funded by the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) of the European Union (EU) as a part of the Online Blast Furnace Stack Status Monitoring (StackMonitor) project, grant number 709816. The APC was funded by Business Finland as a part of the Towards Fossil-free Steel (FFS) research program, grant number 45774/31/2020.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (