University of Oulu

Kekki, MK. (2022). Incompatible Ideals of the Citizen: Deliberative and Radical Pluralist Approaches in Philosophy of Education. In: Holma, K., Kontinen, T. (eds) Learning, Philosophy, and African Citizenship. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Incompatible ideals of the citizen : deliberative and radical pluralist approaches in philosophy of education

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Author: Kekki, Minna-Kerttu1
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-07-05


This chapter explores the implications of two dominant approaches in democratic theory in twenty-first-century philosophy of education: deliberative democracy and radical pluralist (agonistic or antagonistic) democracy. I argue that these two approaches and their theorists imply two essentially different conceptions of citizenship in terms of its ideals and imaginaries and, thereby, the goals and emphasises of learning it. I suggest, therefore, that following either of the theories makes the subsequent philosophy of education also political, hence, a political philosophy of education. I develop my argument based on a reflective point of view with no aim to defend either approach but, rather, to analyse their different implications for citizenship from the ‘outsider’ point of view.

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ISBN: 978-3-030-94882-5
ISBN Print: 978-3-030-94881-8
Pages: 39 - 57
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-94882-5_3
Host publication: Learning, Philosophy, and African Citizenship
Host publication editor: Holma, Katariina
Kontinen, Tiina
Type of Publication: A3 Book chapter
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Copyright information: © 2022 The Author(s). This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.