University of Oulu

Arne Peys, Visa Isteri, Juho Yliniemi, Antonia S. Yorkshire, Patrick N. Lemougna, Claire Utton, John L. Provis, Ruben Snellings, Theodore Hanein, Sustainable iron-rich cements: Raw material sources and binder types, Cement and Concrete Research, Volume 157, 2022, 106834, ISSN 0008-8846,

Sustainable iron-rich cements : raw material sources and binder types

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Author: Peys, Arne1; Isteri, Visa2; Yliniemi, Juho3;
Organizations: 1Sustainable Materials, VITO, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
2Process metallurgy, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014, Finland
3Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, PO Box 4300, 90014, Finland
4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
5Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
6Department of Minerals Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Mineral Industries (EGCIM), University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-07-13


The bulk of the cement industry’s environmental burden is from the calcareous source. Calcium is mostly available naturally as limestone (CaCO₃), where almost half of the mass is eventually released as CO₂ during clinker manufacture. Iron (Fe) is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust surpassed only by oxygen, silicon, and aluminium; therefore, potential raw materials for alternative cements can contain significant amounts of iron. This review paper discusses in detail the most abundantly available Fe-rich natural resources and industrial by-products and residues, establishing symbiotic supply chains from various sectors. The discussion then focusses on the impact of high iron content in clinker and on ferrite (thermo)chemistry, as well as the importance of iron speciation on its involvement in the reactions as supplementary cementitious material or alkali-activated materials, and the technical quality that can be achieved from sustainable Fe-rich cements.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 157
Article number: 106834
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106834
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: T. Hanein was funded by UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (MR/V023829/1). A. Yorkshire and J. L. Provis were funded by EPSRC (EP/T013524/1). J. L. Provis and T. Hanein were also funded by UKRI through the ICEC-MCM centre (EP/V011820/1). V. Isteri was funded by Business Finland project: Towards Carbon Neutral Metals – TOCANEM (No. 41700/31/2020).
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (