University of Oulu

Dan Rosbjerg, Kolbjørn Engeland, Eirik Førland, Ali Torabi Haghighi, Ali Danandeh Mehr, Jonas Olsson; Nordic contributions to stochastic methods in hydrology. Hydrology Research 1 June 2022; 53 (6): 840–866. doi:

Nordic contributions to stochastic methods in hydrology

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Author: Rosbjerg, Dan1; Engeland, Kolbjørn2; Førland, Eirik3;
Organizations: 1Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
2The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, P.O. Box 5091, Majorstua, N-0301, Oslo, Norway
3The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 43 Blindern, N-0313, Oslo, Norway
4Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, Oulu F-90014, Finland
5Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SE-601 76, Norrköping, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: IWA Publishing, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-07-15


The paper presents prominent Nordic contributions to stochastic methods in hydrology and water resources during the previous 50 years. The development in methods from analysis of stationary and independent hydrological events to include non-stationarity, risk analysis, big data, operational research and climate change impacts is hereby demonstrated. The paper is divided into four main sections covering flood frequency and drought analyses, assessment of rainfall extremes, stochastic approaches to water resources management and approaches to climate change and adaptation efforts. It is intended as a review paper referring to a rich selection of internationally published papers authored by Nordic hydrologists or hydrologists from abroad working in a Nordic country or in cooperation with Nordic hydrologists. Emerging trends in needs and methodologies are highlighted in the conclusions.

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Series: Hydrology research
ISSN: 1998-9563
ISSN-E: 2224-7955
ISSN-L: 1998-9563
Volume: 53
Issue: 6
Pages: 840 - 866
DOI: 10.2166/nh.2022.137
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which permits copying and redistribution for non-commercial purposes with no derivatives, provided the original work is properly cited (