University of Oulu

Virkkala​​​​​​​, A.-M., Natali, S. M., Rogers, B. M., Watts, J. D., Savage, K., Connon, S. J., Mauritz, M., Schuur, E. A. G., Peter, D., Minions, C., Nojeim, J., Commane, R., Emmerton, C. A., Goeckede, M., Helbig, M., Holl, D., Iwata, H., Kobayashi, H., Kolari, P., López-Blanco, E., Marushchak, M. E., Mastepanov, M., Merbold, L., Parmentier, F.-J. W., Peichl, M., Sachs, T., Sonnentag, O., Ueyama, M., Voigt, C., Aurela, M., Boike, J., Celis, G., Chae, N., Christensen, T. R., Bret-Harte, M. S., Dengel, S., Dolman, H., Edgar, C. W., Elberling, B., Euskirchen, E., Grelle, A., Hatakka, J., Humphreys, E., Järveoja, J., Kotani, A., Kutzbach, L., Laurila, T., Lohila, A., Mammarella, I., Matsuura, Y., Meyer, G., Nilsson, M. B., Oberbauer, S. F., Park, S.-J., Petrov, R., Prokushkin, A. S., Schulze, C., St. Louis, V. L., Tuittila, E.-S., Tuovinen, J.-P., Quinton, W., Varlagin, A., Zona, D., and Zyryanov, V. I.: The ABCflux database: Arctic–boreal CO2 flux observations and ancillary information aggregated to monthly time steps across terrestrial ecosystems, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,, 2022.

The ABCflux database : Arctic–boreal CO₂ flux observations and ancillary information aggregated to monthly time steps across terrestrial ecosystems

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Author: Virkkala, Anna-Maria1; Natali, Susan M.1; Rogers, Brendan M.1;
Organizations: 1Woodwell Climate Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644, USA
2Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500W University Rd, El Paso, TX 79902, USA
3Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA
4Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA
5Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964, USA
6Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
7Department Biogeochemical Signals, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany
8Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
9Departement de Geographie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
10Institute of Soil Science, Center for Earth System Research and Sustainability (CEN), Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
11Department of Environmental Science, Shinshu University, Matsumoto, Japan
12Research Institute for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan
13Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
14Department of Environment and Minerals, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Kivioq 2, 3900, Nuuk, Greenland
15Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Center, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
16Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
17Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
18Oulanka research station, University of Oulu, Liikasenvaarantie 134, 93900 Kuusamo, Finland
19Agroscope, Research Division Agroecology and Environment, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich, Switzerland
20Center for Biogeochemistry in the Anthropocene, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
21Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
22Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden
23GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Germany
24Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuencho, Naka-ku, Sakai, 599-8531, Japan
25Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate system research, Helsinki, Finland
26Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A45, 14473 Potsdam, Germany
27Geography Department, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany
28Agronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
29Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea
30Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
31Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
32Department of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
33Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldagde 10, Copenhagen, Denmark
34Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
35Department of Geography & Environmental Studies, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Dr., Ottawa, ON, K2B 5J5 Canada
36Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
37Center for International Partnerships and Research on Climate Change, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, 1 Matsunosato, Tsukuba, Japan​​​​​​​
38Environment and Climate Change Canada, Climate Research Division, Victoria, BC V8N 1V8, Canada
39Department of Biological Sciences and Institute of Environment, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
40Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, 26 Sondgomirae-ro Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea
41Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk, Russia​​​​​​​
42VN Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 50/28, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia
43Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
44School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland​​​​​​​
45Cold Regions Research Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
46A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119071, Leninsky pr.33, Moscow, Russia
47Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Copernicus Publications, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-16


Past efforts to synthesize and quantify the magnitude and change in carbon dioxide (CO₂) fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems across the rapidly warming Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) have provided valuable information but were limited in their geographical and temporal coverage. Furthermore, these efforts have been based on data aggregated over varying time periods, often with only minimal site ancillary data, thus limiting their potential to be used in large-scale carbon budget assessments. To bridge these gaps, we developed a standardized monthly database of Arctic–boreal CO₂ fluxes (ABCflux) that aggregates in situ measurements of terrestrial net ecosystem CO₂ exchange and its derived partitioned component fluxes: gross primary productivity and ecosystem respiration. The data span from 1989 to 2020 with over 70 supporting variables that describe key site conditions (e.g., vegetation and disturbance type), micrometeorological and environmental measurements (e.g., air and soil temperatures), and flux measurement techniques. Here, we describe these variables, the spatial and temporal distribution of observations, the main strengths and limitations of the database, and the potential research opportunities it enables. In total, ABCflux includes 244 sites and 6309 monthly observations; 136 sites and 2217 monthly observations represent tundra, and 108 sites and 4092 observations represent the boreal biome. The database includes fluxes estimated with chamber (19 % of the monthly observations), snow diffusion (3 %) and eddy covariance (78 %) techniques. The largest number of observations were collected during the climatological summer (June–August; 32 %), and fewer observations were available for autumn (September–October; 25 %), winter (December–February; 18 %), and spring (March–May; 25 %). ABCflux can be used in a wide array of empirical, remote sensing and modeling studies to improve understanding of the regional and temporal variability in CO₂ fluxes and to better estimate the terrestrial ABZ CO₂ budget.

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Series: Earth system science data
ISSN: 1866-3508
ISSN-E: 1866-3516
ISSN-L: 1866-3508
Volume: 14
Issue: 1
Pages: 179 - 208
DOI: 10.5194/essd-14-179-2022
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1172 Environmental sciences
114 Physical sciences
1171 Geosciences
Funding: This research has been supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (grant nos. NNX17AE13G, NNX15AT81A, NNH17ZDA001N, NNX15AT74A, and NNX16AF94A), the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (grant no. 8414), the National Science Foundation (grant nos. 1331083, 1931333, NSF Arctic Observatory Network, 1204263, and 1702797), the Vetenskapsrådet (grant nos. 2017-05268, 2018-03966, and 2019-04676), the Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas (grant nos. 2016-01289 and 2018-00792), the Kempe Foundation (grant no. SMK-1211), the Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 21-14-00209), the Academy of Finland (grant nos. 317054 and 332196), the Danmarks Grundforskningsfond (grant no. CENPERM DNRF100), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant no. EXC 177 CliSAP), the Skogssällskapet (grant no. 2018-485-Steg 2 2017), the Natural Environment Research Council (grant no. NE/P002552/1), the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant nos. NRF-2021M1A5A1065425, KOPRI-PN21011, NRF-2021M1A5A1065679, and NRF-2021R1I1A1A01053870), the Norges Forskningsråd (grant no. 274711), US Department of Energy, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Russian Science Foundation (grant no. 21-14-00209), the Ministry of Transport and Communication (Finland), ArcticNet, The Arctic Challenge for Sustainability and The Arctic Challenge for Sustainability II (grant no. JPMXD1420318865), KAKENHI (grant no. 19H05668), Greenland Ecosystem Monitoring Program, Danish Program for Arctic Research (grant no. 80.35), TCOS Siberia, NOAA-CESSRST (grant no. NA16SEC4810008), European Union's Horizon 2020 (grant no. 72789), NGEE Arctic, and Russian Fund for Basic Research (grant no. 18-05-60203-Arktika).
Copyright information: © Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.