University of Oulu

M. Asad Ullah, A. Yastrebova, K. Mikhaylov, M. Höyhtyä and H. Alves, "Situational Awareness for Autonomous Ships in the Arctic: mMTC Direct-to-Satellite Connectivity," in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 32-38, June 2022, doi: 10.1109/MCOM.001.2100810.

Situational awareness for autonomous ships in the Arctic : mMTC direct-to-satellite connectivity

Saved in:
Author: Asad Ullah, Muhammad1; Yastrebova, Anastasia2; Mikhaylov, Konstantin1;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland
2VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-22


The maritime autonomous surface ship (MASS) promises a revolution in naval logistics by offering sustainability, safety, and operational costs reduction. The MASS can bring to the Arctic and other hard-to-reach regions numerous social and economic benefits, thus contributing to equalizing access for human and machine terminals to connectivity, and equate the life quality of their inhabitants with that of other regions. In this article, we suggest a hybrid communication architecture that separates a ship’s data traffic into awareness and emergency components. For the former traffic, we advocate the possibility of direct-to-satellite using massive machine-type communication (mMTC) and low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies. To validate this hypothesis and investigate the potential performance and effect of different design and configuration parameters, we conduct simulations based on real-life positions of ships and satellites, traffic patterns, and the LoRaWAN connectivity model. Our results demonstrate the suggested approach’s feasibility and clarify the different parameters’ effects on the connectivity performance for the classical LoRa and novel long-range frequency hopping spread spectrum modulation coding schemes. Notably, the combination of multi-connectivity of LoRaWAN LPWAN technology and multi-satellite visibility dramatically boosts the probability of packet delivery.

see all

Series: IEEE communications magazine
ISSN: 0163-6804
ISSN-E: 1558-1896
ISSN-L: 0163-6804
Volume: 60
Issue: 6
DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.001.2100810
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: We thank the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship (Grant no. 346208), MRAT-SafeDrone (Grant no. 341111), and the European Commission H2020 project Hexa-X (Grant Agreement no. 101015956) for their support. VTT researchers thank the CF_Space project, 6G_Sat project, and Business Finland.
EU Grant Number: (101015956) Hexa-X - A flagship for B5G/6G vision and intelligent fabric of technology enablers connecting human, physical, and digital worlds
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 346208
Detailed Information: 346208 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
341111 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.