University of Oulu

Burmeister CF, Hofer M, Molaiyan P, Michalowski P, Kwade A. Characterization of Stressing Conditions in a High Energy Ball Mill by Discrete Element Simulations. Processes. 2022; 10(4):692.

Characterization of stressing conditions in a high energy ball mill by discrete element simulations

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Author: Burmeister, Christine Friederike1; Hofer, Moritz1; Molaiyan, Palanivel2;
Organizations: 1Institute for Particle Technology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Volkmaroder Straße 5, 38104 Braunschweig, Germany
2Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-23


The synthesis of sulfide solid electrolytes in ball mills by mechanochemical routes not only is efficient but also can enable the upscaling of material synthesis as required for the commercialization of solid-state battery materials. On a laboratory scale, the Emax high energy ball mill accounts for high stresses and power densities, as well as for temperature control, to prevent damage to the material and equipment even for long process times. To overcome the merely phenomenological treatment, we characterized the milling process in an Emax by DEM simulations, using the sulfide solid electrolyte LPS as a model material for the calibration of input parameters to the DEM, and compared it to a planetary ball mill for a selected parameter set. We derived mechanistic model equations for the stressing conditions depending on the operation parameters of rotational speed, media size and filling ratio. The stressing conditions are of importance as they determine the outcome of the mechanochemical milling process, thus forming the basis for evaluating and interpreting experiments and for establishing scaling rules for the process transfer to larger mills.

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Series: Processes
ISSN: 2227-9717
ISSN-E: 2227-9717
ISSN-L: 2227-9717
Volume: 10
Issue: 4
Article number: 692
DOI: 10.3390/pr10040692
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
216 Materials engineering
214 Mechanical engineering
Funding: The research was supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)within the project FEST-BATT under grant number 03XP0177C.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (