University of Oulu

Jialei Yang, Pia Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Evolving appropriability – Variation in the relevance of appropriability mechanisms across industries, Technovation, Volume 118, 2022, 102593, ISSN 0166-4972,

Evolving appropriability : variation in the relevance of appropriability mechanisms across industries

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Author: Yang, Jialei1; Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Pia1
Organizations: 1Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, PO Box 4600, 90014, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-26


Although innovation appropriability has been studied for decades, industry-level variations and development patterns have rarely been the focus of research. Using three waves of Community Innovation Survey data, this paper empirically explores the dynamics in the use of appropriability mechanisms across time and industries. The use of appropriability mechanisms has increased, and preferences have shifted from the moderate use of formal and informal appropriability mechanisms to informal types. In addition, while there are industry differences, generally after a decade, the connections between the mechanisms are more numerous and encompass different forms. Furthermore, a necessary condition analysis (NCA) reveals differences between industries on the necessity of varying appropriability mechanisms for innovation cooperation. While ineffectiveness of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and secrecy can be compensated with other appropriability mechanisms in practically any industry, there are industries where lead time and complexity are determinants of innovation cooperation and cannot be substituted or compensated for. These insights into industry-specific patterns unveil innovation appropriability in various contexts and assist managers in resisting the dominant logics in their industry when pursuing appropriation in collaborative and converging environments.

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Series: Technovation
ISSN: 0166-4972
ISSN-E: 1879-2383
ISSN-L: 0166-4972
Volume: 118
Article number: 102593
DOI: 10.1016/j.technovation.2022.102593
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (