University of Oulu

N. Hossein Motlagh, S. Kapoor, R. Alhalaseh, S. Tarkoma and K. Hätönen, "Quality of Monitoring for Cellular Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 381-391, March 2022, doi: 10.1109/TNSM.2021.3112467

Quality of monitoring for cellular networks

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Author: Motlagh, Naser Hossein1; Kapoor, Shubham1; Alhalaseh, Rola1;
Organizations: 1Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
2Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
3Department of Network Systems and Security Research, Nokia Bell Labs, 02610 Espoo, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-29


5G networks and beyond introduce a larger number of Network Elements (NEs) and functions than former cellular generations. The increase in NEs will, thus, result in significantly increasing the Management-Plane (M-Plane) data collected from the NEs. Therefore, the conventional centralized Network Management Systems (NMSs) will face fundamental challenges in processing the M-Plane data. In this paper, we present the concept of Quality of Monitoring (QoM) as a solution, which is able to reduce the M-Plane data already at the NEs. First, QoM aggregates the raw M-Plane data into Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). To these KPIs, the QoM applies a data-driven algorithm to define information loss limits for QoM classes specific for each KPI time series. Then, the QoM applies the classes for compressing the KPI data utilizing a lossy-compression method, which is a derivative of the Piece-Wise Constant Approximation (PWCA) algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the QoM solution, we use M-Plane raw data from a live LTE network and calculate four KPIs, while each KPI has different statistical characteristics. We also define three QoM classes named Exact, Optimized, and Sharp. For all KPIs, the class Optimized has a higher compression rate than the class Exact, while the class Sharp has the highest compression rate. Assuming that, for example, NEs of a network produce 280 MB of raw data containing information that needs to be transferred to the network operations center; we use KPIs to represent the information contents of the data, and QoM solution to transfer the data over the network. As a result, the QoM solution achieves an estimated 95% compression gain from the raw data in transfer.

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Series: IEEE transactions on network and service management
ISSN: 2373-7379
ISSN-E: 1932-4537
ISSN-L: 2373-7379
Volume: 19
Issue: 1
Pages: 381 - 391
DOI: 10.1109/tnsm.2021.3112467
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: The research was supported by the Nokia Center for Advanced Research(NCAR) and the Academy of Finland project IDEA-MILL with grant number 335934.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see