University of Oulu

N. Arora et al., "Augmenting Immersive Telepresence Experience with a Virtual Body," in IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2135-2145, May 2022, doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2022.3150473

Augmenting immersive telepresence experience with a virtual body

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Author: Arora, Nikunj1; Suomalainen, Markku1; Pouke, Matti1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-29


We propose augmenting immersive telepresence by adding a virtual body, representing the user’s own arm motions, as realized through a head-mounted display and a 360-degree camera. Previous research has shown the effectiveness of having a virtual body in simulated environments; however, research on whether seeing one’s own virtual arms increases presence or preference for the user in an immersive telepresence setup is limited. We conducted a study where a host introduced a research lab while participants wore a head-mounted display which allowed them to be telepresent at the host’s physical location via a 360-degree camera, either with or without a virtual body. We first conducted a pilot study of 20 participants, followed by a pre-registered 62 participant confirmatory study. Whereas the pilot study showed greater presence and preference when the virtual body was present, the confirmatory study failed to replicate these results, with only behavioral measures suggesting an increase in presence. After analyzing the qualitative data and modeling interactions, we suspect that the quality and style of the virtual arms, and the contrast between animation and video, led to individual differences in reactions to the virtual body which subsequently moderated feelings of presence.

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Series: IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics
ISSN: 1077-2626
ISSN-E: 1941-0506
ISSN-L: 1077-2626
Volume: 28
Issue: 5
Pages: 2135 - 2145
DOI: 10.1109/tvcg.2022.3150473
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the Business Finland project HUMOR 3656/31/2019, Academy of Finland projects PERCEPT 322637, PIXIE 331822, and SRC project COMBAT 293389, and European Research Council project ILLUSIVE 101020977.
EU Grant Number: (101020977) ILLUSIVE - Foundations of Perception Engineering
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322637
Detailed Information: 322637 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
331822 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2022. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see