University of Oulu

Shu, Q., Visuri, VV., Alatarvas, T. et al. A Kinetic Model for Precipitation of TiN Inclusions From Both Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation During Solidification of Steel. Metall Mater Trans B 53, 2321–2333 (2022).

A kinetic model for precipitation of TiN inclusions from both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation during solidification of steel

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Author: Shu, Qifeng1; Visuri, Ville-Valtteri1; Alatarvas, Tuomas1;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-08-31


Complex TiN + oxide inclusions which nucleate and grow on the surface of the primary oxide inclusions, e.g. MgO, have been frequently observed in various steel grades after solidification. To describe the precipitation kinetics of TiN and TiN + MgO inclusions, a model accounting for both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation was proposed in this work. The model was validated by employing the literature data, and good agreement has been achieved between experimental data and calculation data. The influence of nitrogen and titanium concentrations, the interfacial tension between TiN and steel, cooling rate, and size distribution of primary oxides on the size distribution of TiN and TiN + MgO inclusions were investigated by the model calculations. It was found that nitrogen and titanium concentrations, the interfacial tension between TiN and steel, and the number density of primary MgO inclusions have an impact on the final size distributions of TiN and TiN + MgO inclusions. In contrast, the effects of cooling rate and size of MgO inclusions on the final inclusion size distribution are negligible. The large interfacial tension between TiN and steel would suppress the homogeneous nucleation and is favorable to heterogeneous nucleation. The increase of the number density of primary MgO can significantly suppress the homogeneous nucleation and reduce the size of TiN + MgO inclusions. The present model can be extended to describe the heterogeneous precipitation of other complex inclusions providing that the secondary inclusion has a low lattice mismatch with the primary inclusion. Combining the present model with our previous model for the size distribution of primary inclusions, the size distribution of inclusions in solidified steel can be well described and controlled.

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Series: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, Process metallurgy and materials processing science
ISSN: 1073-5615
ISSN-E: 1543-1916
ISSN-L: 1073-5615
Volume: 53
Issue: 4
Pages: 2321 - 2333
DOI: 10.1007/s11663-022-02531-4
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: The financial support from the Academy of Finland for Genome of Steel Grant (No. 311934) and Kvantum Institute at the University of Oulu is gratefully acknowledged. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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