University of Oulu

Irannezhad M, Ahmadian S, Sadeqi A, Minaei M, Ahmadi B, Marttila H. Peak Spring Flood Discharge Magnitude and Timing in Natural Rivers across Northern Finland: Long-Term Variability, Trends, and Links to Climate Teleconnections. Water. 2022; 14(8):1312.

Peak spring flood discharge magnitude and timing in natural rivers across northern Finland : long-term variability, trends, and links to climate teleconnections

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Author: Irannezhad, Masoud1; Ahmadian, Saghar2; Sadeqi, Amin3;
Organizations: 1Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
3Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
4Department of Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
5Geographic Information Science/System and Remote Sensing Laboratory (GISSRS: Lab), Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 9177948974, Iran
6WSP USA, Portland, OR 97204, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-05


In northern regions, like Finland, peak river discharge is principally controlled by maximum snowmelt runoff during spring (March–May). Global warming and climate change extensively influence both the quantity and temporal characteristics of peak discharge in northern rivers by altering snowpack accumulation and melt processes. This study analyzed peak spring flood discharge (PSFD) magnitude (PSFDM) and timing (PSFDT) in four natural rivers (Simojoki, Kuivajoki, Kiiminkijoki, and Temmesjoki) across northern Finland, in terms of long-term (1967–2011) variability, trends, and links to large-scale climate teleconnections. The PSFDM significantly (p < 0.05) declined in the Simojoki, Kuivajoki, and Kiiminkijoki rivers over time. Both the Simojoki and Kuivajoki rivers also experienced significant decreasing trends of about −0.33 and −0.3 (days year−1), respectively, in the PSFDT during 1967–2011. In these two rivers, the less and earlier PSFDs were principally attributable to the warmer spring seasons positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in recent decades. Moreover, daily precipitation time series corresponding to the PSFD events showed no considerable effects on PSFDM and PSFDT changes in all the natural rivers studied. This suggests that less and earlier historical PSFDs in natural rivers at higher latitudes in northern Finland were primarily induced by warmer springtime temperatures influencing snowpack dynamics.

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Series: Water
ISSN: 2073-4441
ISSN-E: 2073-4441
ISSN-L: 2073-4441
Volume: 14
Issue: 8
Article number: 1312
DOI: 10.3390/w14081312
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
Funding: This study was funded by the ARCTIC INTERACTION RESEARCH PROFILE ACTION supported by the University of Oulu and the Academy of Finland PROFI4, grant number 318930.
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (