University of Oulu

Kylmäoja E, Holopainen J, Abushahba F, Ritala M, Tuukkanen J. Osteoblast Attachment on Titanium Coated with Hydroxyapatite by Atomic Layer Deposition. Biomolecules. 2022; 12(5):654.

Osteoblast attachment on titanium coated with hydroxyapatite by atomic layer deposition

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Author: Kylmäoja, Elina1; Holopainen, Jani2; Abushahba, Faleh3;
Organizations: 1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Cancer Research and Translational Medicine, Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
3Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-06


Background: The increasing demand for bone implants with improved osseointegration properties has prompted researchers to develop various coating types for metal implants. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a method for producing nanoscale coatings conformally on complex three-dimensional surfaces. We have prepared hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium (Ti) substrate with the ALD method and analyzed the biocompatibility of this coating in terms of cell adhesion and viability.

Methods: HA coatings were prepared on Ti substrates by depositing CaCO₃ films by ALD and converting them to HA by wet treatment in dilute phosphate solution. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts were cultured on ALD-HA, glass slides and bovine bone slices. ALD-HA and glass slides were either coated or non-coated with fibronectin. After 48h culture, cells were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by vinculin antibody staining for focal adhesion localization. An 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was performed to study cell viability.

Results: Vinculin staining revealed similar focal adhesion-like structures on ALD-HA as on glass slides and bone, albeit on ALD-HA and bone the structures were thinner compared to glass slides. This might be due to thin and broad focal adhesions on complex three-dimensional surfaces of ALD-HA and bone. The MTT test showed comparable cell viability on ALD-HA, glass slides and bone.

Conclusion: ALD-HA coating was shown to be biocompatible in regard to cell adhesion and viability. This leads to new opportunities in developing improved implant coatings for better osseointegration and implant survival.

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Series: Biomolecules
ISSN: 2218-273X
ISSN-E: 2218-273X
ISSN-L: 2218-273X
Volume: 12
Issue: 5
Article number: 654
DOI: 10.3390/biom12050654
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
3122 Cancers
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (