University of Oulu

Makarieva O, Nesterova N, Haghighi AT, Ostashov A, Zemlyanskova A. Challenges of Hydrological Engineering Design in Degrading Permafrost Environment of Russia. Energies. 2022; 15(7):2649.

Challenges of hydrological engineering design in degrading permafrost environment of Russia

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Author: Makarieva, Olga1,2; Nesterova, Nataliia1,2,3; Torabi Haghighi, Ali4;
Organizations: 1Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Magadan 677010, Russia
2Institute of Earth Sciences, Saint Petersburg University, Saint Petersburg 199034, Russia
3State Hydrological Institute, Saint Petersburg 199004, Russia
4Water Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
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Version: published version
Access: open
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-07


The study shows that the current network of hydrometeorological observation in the permafrost zone of Russia is insufficient to provide data for the statistical approaches adopted at the state level for engineering surveys and calculations. The alternative to the financially costly and practically impossible expansion of the monitoring network is the development of hydrological research stations and the implementation of new methods for calculating streamflow characteristics based on mathematical modeling. The data of the Kolyma Water-Balance Station, the first research basin in the world in a permafrost environment (1948–1997), and the process-based hydrological model Hydrograph are applied to simulate streamflow hydrographs in remote mountainous permafrost basins. The satisfactory results confirm that mathematical modeling may substitute or replace statistical approaches in the conditions of extreme data insufficiency. The improvement of the models in a changing climate requires the renewal of historical observations at currently abandoned research stations in Russian permafrost regions. The study is important for forming the state policy in climate change adaptation and mitigation measures.

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Series: Energies
ISSN: 1996-1073
ISSN-E: 1996-1073
ISSN-L: 1996-1073
Volume: 15
Issue: 7
Article number: 2649
DOI: 10.3390/en15072649
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
Funding: The study was carried out with the support of RFBR (19-55-80028), Russian Geographical Society (“Water resources of the north-east of Russia in the conditions of global and regional changes”) and St. Petersburg State University (project 75295776).
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (