University of Oulu

Karzarjeddi, M., Ismail, M. Y., Antti Sirviö, J., Wang, S., Mankinen, O., Telkki, V.-V., Patanen, M., Laitinen, O., & Liimatainen, H. (2022). Adjustable hydro-thermochromic green nanofoams and films obtained from shapable hybrids of cellulose nanofibrils and ionic liquids for smart packaging. Chemical Engineering Journal, 443, 136369.

Adjustable hydro-thermochromic green nanofoams and films obtained from shapable hybrids of cellulose nanofibrils and ionic liquids for smart packaging

Saved in:
Author: Karzarjeddi, Mohammad1; Ismail, Mostafa Y.1; Sirviö, Juho Antti1;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3NMR Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O.Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.6 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-08


Engendering stimuli-responsive and green shapable materials is a critical aspect of intelligent, responsive packaging technologies. Thermochromism, i.e., the optical response of materials to thermal stimuli, merges the visual appearance of the packaging with the temperature of the surroundings and cargo. Herein, sustainable, functional two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) hybrids of natural nanoribbons, i.e., cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and ionic liquids (ILs), were introduced as highly porous hydrothermochromic nanofoams, spheres, and flexible films. Hygroscopic ILs of nickel (II) or chromium (III) salts and imidazolium derivatives (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) were incorporated into the nanofibrils network, driving reversible color-switching via moisture adsorption controlled by temperature (hydrothermochromism, HTC). Multicolored HTC hybrids with a vast and adjustable color range from pale green to blue and from green to red with a color transition at 20 °C–80 °C were obtained by tailoring the composition (nickel and chromium chloride chemistry) and shape of the CNF–IL samples. These humidity- and temperature-responsive hybrids derived from biobased nanomaterials can pave the way toward future green smart packaging, which meets the requirements of sustainable development. The hybrids also provide advanced performance by monitoring and responding to the conditions of items and the surroundings.

see all

Series: Chemical engineering journal
ISSN: 1385-8947
ISSN-E: 1873-3212
ISSN-L: 1385-8947
Volume: 443
Article number: 136369
DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2022.136369
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
116 Chemical sciences
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: The authors acknowledge the support from the Academy of Finland project “ACNF” (325276), Business Finland project “SUSBINCO”, the European Research Council under Horizon 2020, project Ultrafast Laplace NMR (grant agreement no. 772110) and the I4Future doctoral program, which is part of the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Marie Skłodowska–Curie Grant Agreement No. 713606, and the Walter Ahlström Foundation. The financial support from the Kvantum institute (University of Oulu) is also acknowledged. The SEM part of the work was conducted with the support of the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
EU Grant Number: (772110) UFLNMR - Ultrafast Laplace NMR
(713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 325276
Detailed Information: 325276 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Supplementary data to this article can be found online at
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (