University of Oulu

Ristaniemi, J., Karjalainen, T., Kujasalo, K. et al. Eruption pattern of the maxillary canines: features indicating treatment needs as seen in PTG at the late mixed stage—Part II. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 23, 567–578 (2022).

Eruption pattern of the maxillary canines: features indicating treatment needs as seen in PTG at the late mixed stage : part II

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Author: Ristaniemi, J.1; Karjalainen, T.1; Kujasalo, K.1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Oral Development and Orthodontics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-09


Aim: To describe features of maxillary permanent canines in the late mixed stage as seen in panoramic radiograph (PTG) that later needed treatment to erupt into the oral cavity and to compare them with naturally erupted canines.

Methods: The cross-sectional part of this retrospective register-based study consisted of 1454 PTGs of children (mean age 9.3 years) living in Eastern Finland, while the longitudinal part involved patient data on 184 treated maxillary canines. The variables examined were treatment needs, overlapping and inclination of the maxillary canines, the development stage of the canines and lateral incisors and dental age.

Results: Only 11.6% of the maxillary canines needed treatment, including interceptive procedures. The treated canines significantly more often had overlapping (p < 0.001), larger inclination (p = 0.001) and incomplete lateral incisors (p = 0.002) than did the naturally erupted canines. The children treated significantly more often had a delayed dental age (p = 0.035). Clear overlapping was closely associated with all treatment modalities, whereas some overlapping and a large inclination angle (≥ 25°) were associated especially in cases of late treatment. An incomplete lateral incisor and delayed dental age were associated with treatment.

Conclusion: An association with treatment needs was found especially in the case of overlapping and a large inclination angle of the maxillary canine a couple of years before eruption into the oral cavity. These features can be early signs and indications for instant or later treatment of a maxillary canine and underline the importance of monitoring space conditions and erupting canines.

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Series: European archives of paediatric dentistry
ISSN: 1818-6300
ISSN-E: 1996-9805
ISSN-L: 1818-6300
Volume: 23
Issue: 4
Pages: 567 - 578
DOI: 10.1007/s40368-022-00719-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. This study was supported by grants from the Finnish Dental Society Apollonia; its Division of Orthodontics and the Marjut Evälahti Fund; the Finnish Women Dentists’ Association.
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