University of Oulu

Ehlich, H., Cater, H.L., Flenniken, A.M. et al. INFRAFRONTIER quality principles in systemic phenotyping. Mamm Genome 33, 120–122 (2022).

INFRAFRONTIER quality principles in systemic phenotyping

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Author: Ehlich, Hilke1; Cater, Heather L.2; Flenniken, Ann M.3,4;
Organizations: 1INFRAFRONTIER GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany
2MRC Harwell Institute, Mary Lyon Centre, Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire, UK
3Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health, Toronto, ON, Canada
4The Centre for Phenogenomics, Toronto, ON, Canada
5Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, INSERM, CELPHEDIA, PHENOMIN, Institut Clinique de La Souris, Illkirch, France
6Centre d’Immunophénomique (CIPHE), Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, CNRS, CELPHEDIA, PHENOMIN, Marseille, France
7Biomedical Sciences Research Center “Alexander Fleming”, Athens, Greece
8Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Experimental Genetics, German Mouse Clinic, Neuherberg, Germany
9Czech Centre for Phenogenomics, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Vestec, Czech Republic
10University of Oulu, Biocenter Oulu, Transgenic and Tissue Phenotyping Core Facility, Oulu, Finland
11MRC Harwell Institute, Mammalian Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell Campus, Oxfordshire, UK
12University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, PEDEGO Research Unit and Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland
13German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany
14Technische Universität München, Chair of Experimental Genetics, TUM School of Life Sciences, Freising, Germany
15The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada
16The Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-14


Improving reproducibility and replicability in preclinical research is a widely discussed and pertinent topic, especially regarding ethical responsibility in animal research. INFRAFRONTIER, the European Research Infrastructure for the generation, phenotyping, archiving, and distribution of model mammalian genomes, is addressing this issue by developing internal quality principles for its different service areas, that provides a quality framework for its operational activities. This article introduces the INFRAFRONTIER Quality Principles in Systemic Phenotyping of genetically altered mouse models. A total of 11 key principles are included, ranging from general requirements for compliance with guidelines on animal testing, to the need for well-trained personnel and more specific standards such as the exchange of reference lines. Recently established requirements such as the provision of FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reusable) data are also addressed. For each quality principle, we have outlined the specific context, requirements, further recommendations, and key references.

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Series: Mammalian genome
ISSN: 0938-8990
ISSN-E: 1432-1777
ISSN-L: 0938-8990
Volume: 33
Issue: 1
Pages: 120 - 122
DOI: 10.1007/s00335-021-09892-2
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
Funding: This work has been funded by the European Union Research and Innovation programme Horizon 2020 (INFRAFRONTIER2020—Grant Agreement Number 730879). Biomedical Sciences Research Center “Alexander Fleming” acknowledges support of this work by the InfrafrontierGR action, co-funded by Greece and the European Union (European Regional Development Fund), under NSRF 2014–2020, MIS 5002135. CELPHEDIA-PHENOMIN-ICS and CIPHE are supported from French state funds through the "Agence Nationale de la Recherche" under the frame programme Investissements d'Avenir labelled ANR-10-INBS-07 PHENOMIN. The Czech Centre for Phenogenomics is supported by the Czech Academy of Sciences RVO 68378050 and by the project LM2018126 Czech Centre for Phenogenomics provided by Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. The German Mouse Clinic is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Infrafrontier Grant 01KX1012). The MRC Harwell Institute is supported by the UKRI Medical Research Council. The Centre for Phenogenomics is supported by Ontario Genomics with a Genomics Technology Platforms grant and by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation Major Sciences Initiatives Grant 35534. Biocenter Oulu, Transgenic and Tissue Phenotyping Core Facility, University of Oulu is supported by the Biocenter Finland and the Academy of Finland, project 319405.
EU Grant Number: (730879) INFRAFRONTIER2020 - Towards enduring mouse resources and services advancing research into human health and disease
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 319405
Detailed Information: 319405 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: The online version contains supplementary material available at
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit