University of Oulu

Choudhary, P., Ronkainen, J., Nedelec, R. et al. The relationship of life-course patterns of adiposity with type 2 diabetes, depression, and their comorbidity in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Int J Obes 46, 1470–1477 (2022).

The relationship of life-course patterns of adiposity with type 2 diabetes, depression, and their comorbidity in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

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Author: Choudhary, Priyanka1; Ronkainen, Justiina1; Nedelec, Rozenn1;
Organizations: 1Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UK
3Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK
5MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK
6Department of Life Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-15


Objectives: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and comorbid depression challenges clinical management particularly in individuals with overweight. We aim to explore the shared etiology, via lifecourse adiposity, between T2D and depression.

Methods: We used data from birth until 46years from Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 6,372; 53.8% females). We conducted multivariate analyses on three outcomes: T2D (4.2%), depression (19.2%) and as comorbidity (1.8%). We conducted (i) Path analysis to clarify time-dependent body mass index (BMI) related pathways, including BMI polygenic risk scores (PRS); and (ii) Cox regression models to assess whether reduction of overweight between 7years and 31years influence T2D, depression and/or comorbidity. The models were tested for covariation with sex, education, smoking, physical activity, and diet score.

Results: The odd ratios (OR) of T2D in individuals with depression was 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34–2.11], and no change in estimate was observed when adjusted for covariates. T2D and comorbidity showed similar patterns of relationships in the path analyses (P < 0.001). The genetic risk for obesity (PRS BMI) did not show direct effect on T2D or comorbidity in adulthood but indirectly through measures of adiposity in early childhood and mid-adulthood in the path analysis (P < 0.001). Having early-onset of overweight at 7years and 31years showed highest risk of T2D (OR 3.8, 95%CI 2.4–6.1) and comorbidity (OR 5.0, 95%CI 2.7–9.5), with mild-to-moderate attenuation with adjustments. Depression showed no significant associations.

Conclusions: We found evidence for overweight since childhood as a risk factor for T2D and co-morbidity between T2D and depression, influenced moderately by lifestyle factors in later life. However, no shared early life adiposity related risk factors were observed between T2D and depression when assessed independently in this Finnish setting.

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Series: International journal of obesity
ISSN: 0307-0565
ISSN-E: 1476-5497
ISSN-L: 0307-0565
Volume: 46
Issue: 8
Pages: 1470 - 1477
DOI: 10.1038/s41366-022-01134-y
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: This work was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No. 633595 (DynaHEALTH), grant agreement no. 733206 (LifeCycle), grant agreement no. 873749 (LongITools), grant agreement no. 848158 (EarlyCause). NFBC1966 31 years follow up received financial support from University of Oulu Grant no. 65354, Oulu University Hospital Grant no. 2/97, 8/97, Ministry of Health and Social Affairs Grant no. 23/ 251/97, 160/97, 190/97, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki Grant no. 54121, Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Oulu, Finland Grant no. 50621, 54231. NFBC1966 46-year follow-up received financial support from University of Oulu Grant no. 24000692, Oulu University Hospital Grant no. 24301140, ERDF European Regional Development Fund Grant no. 539/2010 A31592. Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
EU Grant Number: (633595) DYNAHEALTH - Understanding the dynamic determinants of glucose homeostasis and social capability to promote Healthy and active aging
(733206) LIFECYCLE - Early-life stressors and LifeCycle health
(874739) LONGITOOLS - Dynamic longitudinal exposome trajectories in cardiovascular and metabolic non-communicable diseases
(848158) EarlyCause - Causative mechanisms & integrative models linking early-life-stress to psycho-cardio-metabolic multi-morbidity
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