University of Oulu

S. K. Noor et al., "A Review of Orbital Angular Momentum Vortex Waves for the Next Generation Wireless Communications," in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 89465-89484, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3197653.

A review of orbital angular momentum vortex waves for the next generation wireless communications

Saved in:
Author: Noor, Shehab Khan1; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Najib1; Ismail, Arif Mawardi1;
Organizations: 1Advanced Communication Engineering (ACE), Centre of Excellence, Faculty Electronic Engineering Technology, University Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Arau, Perlis 02600, Malaysia
2Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
3Centre for Advanced Electrical & Electronic System (CAEES) Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology, SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Selangor 47810, Malaysia
4Department of Electrical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-19


The next-generation wireless technology that can fulfill such a demand, namely the fifth-generation (5G) technology, should provide 1000 times larger capacity. Moreover, sixth-generation (6G) communication, which represents a significant upgrade from the fifth-generation (5G) network and is anticipated to operate from 100 GHz to 3 THz band, will be required in the years after 2030 due to newly developed data-hungry applications and the greatly expanded wireless network. To meet the ever-growing demands of wireless carriers, an efficient wireless access method that can improve wireless area throughput without expanding bandwidth or cell size is required. Radio Frequency (RF) Orbital Angular Momentum vortex waves (which is now on referred to as OAM waves) to address the concerns mentioned above have attracted much attention in recent years. Due to their orthogonality, different OAM waves of different modes can be multiplexed in the same frequency channel, which can greatly increase the channel capacity. Using the orthogonal modes, a new type of multiple access scheme known as Mode Domain Multiple Access (MDMA) can be used by multiple users using the same frequency channel without additional resources such as frequency and time. As a result, the channel capacity for the next generation wireless communication systems can be enhanced as well as the overall spectrum efficiency can be improved. This review paper begins with an overview of the next generation communication such as 5G communication technology and beyond. This paper first briefly discusses the theory of OAM waves and several methods to generate OAM waves. Various different designs have also been analyzed for their ability to generate OAM waves and discussion on several restrictions and solutions to resolve. Open concerns and development trends are discussed for possible future RF OAM antenna upgrades. This study also proposes that for next generation wireless communication employing OAM, the typically used Uniform Circular Array (UCA) could be paired with the Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) system to improve performance in dense or urban areas for multiusers. In addition, the purity of OAM-modes needs to be considered for efficient utilization of the OAM system for future communications at the radio domain.

see all

Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 10
Pages: 89465 - 89484
DOI: 10.1109/access.2022.3197653
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported by Ministry of Higher Education through the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) under a grant number of FRGS/1/2020/ICT09/UNIMAP/02/2.
Copyright information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see