University of Oulu

Haapanen, M.J., Strandberg, T.E., Törmäkangas, T. et al. Retirement as a predictor of physical functioning trajectories among older businessmen. BMC Geriatr 22, 279 (2022).

Retirement as a predictor of physical functioning trajectories among older businessmen

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Author: Haapanen, Markus J.1,2,3; Strandberg, Timo E.4,5; Törmäkangas, Timo6;
Organizations: 1Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, PO Box 20, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland
2Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
4Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Gerontology Research Center and Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
7School of Business, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-19


Background: Associations between retirement characteristics and consequent physical functioning (PF) are poorly understood, particularly in higher socioeconomic groups, where postponing retirement has had both positive and negative implications for PF.

Methods: Multiple assessments of PF, the first of which at the mean age of 73.3 years, were performed on 1709 men who were retired business executives and managers, using the RAND-36/SF-36 instrument, between 2000 and 2010. Questionnaire data on retirement age and type of pension was gathered in 2000. Five distinct PF trajectories were created using latent growth mixture modelling. Mortality- and covariate-adjusted multinomial regression models were used to estimate multinomial Odds Ratios (mOR) on the association between retirement characteristics and PF trajectories.

Results: A one-year increase in retirement age was associated with decreased likelihood of being classified in the ‘consistently low’ (fully adjusted mOR = 0.82; 95%CI = 0.70, 0.97; P = 0.007), ‘intermediate and declining’ (mOR = 0.89; 95%CI = 0.83, 0.96; P = 0.002), and ‘high and declining’ (mOR = 0.92; 95%CI = 0.87, 0.98; P = 0.006) trajectories, relative to the ‘intact’ PF trajectory. Compared to old age pensioners, disability pensioners were more likely to be classified in the ‘consistently low’ (mOR = 23.77; 95% CI 2.13, 265.04; P = 0.010), ‘intermediate and declining’ (mOR = 8.24; 95%CI = 2.58, 26.35; P < 0.001), and ‘high and declining’ (mOR = 2.71; 95%CI = 1.17, 6.28; P = 0.020) PF trajectories, relative to the ‘intact’ PF trajectory.

Conclusions: Among executives and managers, older age at retirement was associated with better trajectories of PF in old age. Compared to old age pensioners, those transitioning into disability and early old age pensions were at risk of having consistently lower PF in old age.

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Series: BMC geriatrics
ISSN: 1471-2318
ISSN-E: 1471-2318
ISSN-L: 1471-2318
Volume: 22
Issue: 1
Article number: 279
DOI: 10.1186/s12877-022-03001-x
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
Funding: The Academy of Finland supported Mikaela B. von Bonsdorff with grant 257239. The Academy of Finland supported Timo Törmäkangas with grant 286536. The Academy of Finland supported Monika E. von Bonsdorff with grants 294530, 307114 and 303920. Timo Strandberg is supported by the Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Medicine. The funders had no role in the design, methods, analysis, and preparation of the article. Open access funded by Helsinki University Library.
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