University of Oulu

Bashar Qas Elias and Ping Jack Soh, "Design of a Wideband Spring Textile Antenna for Wearable 5G and IoT Applications Using Characteristic Mode Analysis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 112, 177-189, 2022. doi:10.2528/PIERM22062909

Design of a wideband spring textile antenna for wearable 5G and IoT applications using characteristic mode analysis

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Author: Qas Elias, Bashar Bahaa1; Soh, Ping Jack2
Organizations: 1Department of Communications Technology Engineering, College of Information Technology, Imam Ja’afar Al-Sadiq University, Baghdad, Iraq
2Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, P. O. Box 4500, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: EMW Publishing, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-20


This paper presents the design and practical implementation of a wideband spring textile (WST) antenna for wearable communications. The antenna is designed on a felt substrate having a compact dimension of 32 × 42 × 3 mm³ (0.38λg × 0.5λg × 0.036λg). This antenna operates in the 3.14 to 5.45 GHz frequency range, has a bandwidth (BW) of around 2306 MHz, and has a peak realized gain of 6 dBi at 3.5 GHz. Due to a broad frequency coverage, this antenna can be used in a wide range of wireless applications, including 5G and IoT. The proposed design is analyzed in terms of reflection coefficient, radiation pattern, efficiency, gain, and surface current. Using the same electromagnetic simulation software, both characteristic mode analysis (CMA) and the method of moments (MoM) are applied in the design process. The simulated results on a human chest phantom demonstrate the -10-dB impedance bandwidths of 1461 MHz. The antenna prototype is fabricated for verification, and the simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna is suitable for wideband on-body applications given its low-profile implementation and mechanical flexibility.

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Series: Progress in electromagnetics research. M
ISSN: 1937-8726
ISSN-E: 1937-8726
ISSN-L: 1937-8726
Volume: 112
Pages: 177 - 189
DOI: 10.2528/pierm22062909
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was funded in part by the Academy of Finland 6G Flagship program (grant no: 318927).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 EMW Publishing. All rights reserved. Published in this repository with the kind permission of the publisher.