Lembrechts, J. J., van den Hoogen, J., Aalto, J., Ashcroft, M. B., De Frenne, P., Kemppinen, J., Kopecký, M., Luoto, M., Maclean, I. M. D., Crowther, T. W., Bailey, J. J., Haesen, S., Klinges, D. H., Niittynen, P., Scheffers, B. R., Van Meerbeek, K., Aartsma, P., Abdalaze, O., Abedi, M., … Lenoir, J. (2022). Global maps of soil temperature. Global Change Biology, 28, 3110– 3144. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16060
Global maps of soil temperature
|Author:||Lembrechts, Jonas J.1; van den Hoogen, Johan2; Aalto, Juha3,4;|
1Univ Antwerp, Res Grp PLECO Plants & Ecosyst, Antwerp, Belgium.
2Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Inst Integrat Biol, Zurich, Switzerland.
3Finnish Meteorol Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
4Univ Helsinki, Dept Geosci & Geog, Helsinki, Finland.
5Univ Wollongong, Ctr Sustainable Ecosyst Solut, Sch Earth Atmospher & Life Sci, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
6Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
7Univ Ghent, Dept Environm, Forest & Nat Lab, Melle Gontrode, Belgium.
8Univ Oulu, Geog Res Unit, Oulu, Finland.
9Czech Acad Sci, Inst Bot, Pruhonice, Czech Republic.
10Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Fac Forestry & Wood Sci, Prague 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
11Univ Exeter, Environm & Sustainabil Inst, Penryn Campus, Penryn, England.
12York St John Univ, Dept Geog, York, N Yorkshire, England.
13Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Leuven, Belgium.
14Univ Florida, Sch Nat Resources & Environm, Gainesville, FL USA.
15Smithsonian Environm Res Ctr, POB 28, Edgewater, MD 21037 USA.
16Univ Florida, Dept Wildlife Ecol & Conservat, Gainesville, FL USA.
17Univ South Eastern Norway, Dept Nat Sci & Environm Hlth, Bo, Norway.
18Ilia State Univ, Inst Ecol, Alpine Ecosyst Res Program, Tbilisi, Georgia.
19Tarbiat Modares Univ, Fac Nat Resources & Marine Sci, Dept Range Management, Noor, Iran.
20Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Ecol Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
21Royal Bot Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
22Qatar Univ, Environm Sci Ctr, Doha, Qatar.
23Univ Antwerp, Res Grp ECOBE, Antwerp, Belgium.
24Agroscope Res Inst, Dept Agroecol & Environm, Zurich, Switzerland.
25Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Zurich, Switzerland.
26UK Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland.
27Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Sci, Lund, Sweden.
28Joint Res Ctr JRC, European Commiss, Ispra, Italy.
29Siberian Fed Univ, Krasnoyarsk, Russia.
30Univ Nacl Cuyo, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Mendoza, Argentina.
31CCT Mendoza, Inst Argentino Nivol Glaciol & Ciencias Ambiental, CONICET, Mendoza, Argentina.
32Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.
33Aarhus Univ, Ctr Sustainable Landscapes Global Change, Dept Biol, Aarhus C, Denmark.
34Aarhus Univ, Ctr Biodivers Dynam Changing World, Dept Biol, Aarhus C, Denmark.
35Univ Marburg, Fac Geog, Ecol Plant Geog, Marburg, Germany.
36Slovak Acad Sci, Inst Landscape Ecol, Bratislava, Slovakia.
37Agr Univ Iceland, Fac Environm & Forest Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
38Univ Ghent, Isotope Biosci Lab ISOFYS, Ghent, Belgium.
39Univ Rennes, CNRS, EcoBio Ecosyst Biodiversite Evolut UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
40Fdn Edmund Mach, Dept Sustainable Agroecosyst & Bioresources, Res & Innovat Ctr, San Michele All Adige, Italy.
41Alice Holt Lodge, Forest Res, Farnham, Surrey, England.
42Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Dept Ecol, Bogota, Colombia.
43Jolube Consultor Bot, Jaca, Huesca, Spain.
44Univ Hohenheim, Inst Landscape & Plant Ecol, Dept Plant Ecol, Stuttgart, Germany.
45Univ Bayreuth, BayCEER, Disturbance Ecol, Bayreuth, Germany.
46Norwegian Inst Nat Res, FRAM High North Res Ctr Climate & Environm, Tromso, Norway.
47Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
48Gothenburg Global Biodivers Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
49Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
50Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
51Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Alfred Wegener Inst, Telegrafenberg A45, Potsdam, Germany.
52Humboldt Univ, Geog Dept, Berlin, Germany.
53Inst Nacl de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Posgrad Ciencias Florestas Tropicais, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
54Univ Paris Saclay, AgroParisTech, UMR ECOSYS INRAE, Paris, France.
55Inst Nacl de Pesquisas da Amazonia, BDFFP, Biol Dynam Forest Fragments Project, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
56Univ Fed Lavras, Dept Forest Sci, Lavras, Brazil.
57Ordu Univ, Fac Arts & Sci, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, Ordu, Turkey.
58Univ Tubingen, Dept Evolut & Ecol, Plant Ecol Grp, Tubingen, Germany.
59Insubria Univ, Dept Sci & High Technol, Como, Italy.
60Univ Parma, Dept Chem Life Sci & Environm Sustainabil, Parma, Italy.
61Univ Barcelona, Biodivers Res Inst IRBio, Dept Evolutionary Biol Ecol & Environm Sci, Barcelona, Spain.
62CREAF, E-08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola Del, Spain.
63Univ Catolica Temuco, Lab Ecofisiol Vegetal & Cambio Climat, Dept Ciencias Vet & Salud Publ, Campus Luis Rivas del Canto, Temuco, Chile.
64Univ Catolica Temuco, Fac Recursos Nat, Nucleo Estudios Ambientales NEA, Temuco, Chile.
65German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Leipzig, Germany.
66Univ Leipzig, Inst Biol, Leipzig, Germany.
67Poznan Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Environm Protect, Lab Bioclimatol, Poznan, Poland.
68Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LECA, CNRS, Grenoble, France.
69Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, LTSER Zone Atelier Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble, France.
70Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Securing Antarct Environm Future, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
71Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Forest Ecol & Conservat Grp, Cambridge, England.
72Tech Univ Zvolen, Fac Ecol & Environm Sci, Zvolen, Slovakia.
73Univ Austral Chile, Millennium Inst Biodivers Antarctic & Subantarct, Valdivia, Chile.
74Cape Horn Int Ctr CHIC, Puerto Williams, Chile.
75NERC, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
76UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Fac Biosci Fisheries & Econ, Dept Arctic & Marine Biol, Tromso, Norway.
77Environm Protect Agcy Aosta Valley, Climate Change Unit, St Christophe, Italy.
78Univ Notre Dame, Dept Biol Sci, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.
79Univ Roma Tre, Dept Sci, Rome, Italy.
80Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
81Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
82Cty Adm Board Vastra Gotaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
83Univ Edinburgh, Sch GeoSci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
84Univ Alcala, Dept Geol Geog & Environm, Madrid, Spain.
85Tech Univ Dresden, Chair Geoinformat, Dresden, Germany.
86ZHAW Zurich Univ Appl Sci, Inst Nat Resource Sci IUNR, Vegetat Ecol, Wadenswil, Switzerland.
87Univ Bayreuth, Bayreuth Ctr Ecol & Environm Res BayCEER, Plant Ecol, Bayreuth, Germany.
88VITO TAP, Mol, Belgium.
89Swiss Fed Res Inst WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
90Majella Natl Pk, Majella Seed Bank, Colle Madonna, Lama Dei Pelign, Italy.
91Univ Aquila, Dept Life Hlth & Environm Sci, Laquila, Italy.
92IFAB INTA CONICET, Grp Ecol Poblac Insectos, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.
93Univ Houston, Dept Biol & Biochem, Houston, TX USA.
94Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Dept Bot, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
95Umea Univ, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Abisko, Sweden.
96Acad Sci Czech Republ, Global Change Res Inst, Prague, Czech Republic.
97Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Crawley, WA, Australia.
98Kings Pk Sci, Dept Biodivers Conservat & Attract, Kings Pk, Australia.
99Univ Innsbruck, Fac Biol, Dept Bot, Innsbruck, Austria.
100Imperial Coll London, Ascot, Berks, England.
101Operat Wallacea, Lincoln, Lincs, England.
102Bordeaux Sci Agro, INRAE, UMR 1391 ISPA, Villenave Dornon, France.
103Univ Cagliari, Dept Life & Environm Sci, Cagliari, Italy.
104Univ Granada, Dept Bot, Granada, Spain.
105Univ Oviedo, IMIB Biodivers Res Inst, Mieres, Spain.
106Univ Hamburg, Inst Plant Sci & Microbiol, Hamburg, Germany.
107Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.
108Univ Cambridge, Dept Plant Sci, Ecosyst & Global Change Grp, Cambridge, England.
109WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res SLF, Davos, Switzerland.
110Climate Change Extremes & Nat Hazards Alpine Reg, Davos, Switzerland.
111Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
112Univ Concepcion, Fac Ciencias Forestales, Lab Invas Biol LIB, Concepcion, Chile.
113Adventist Univ Chile, Sch Educ & Social Sci, Chillan, Chile.
114Inst Ecol & Biodiversidad IEB, Santiago, Chile.
115Pyrenean Inst Ecol CSIC, Zaragoza, Spain.
116Univ Liege, TERRA Res Ctr, Biodivers & Landscape, Gembloux Agrobio Tech, Gembloux, Belgium.
117Mediterranean Agron Inst Chania, Dept Geoinformat Environm Management, Khania, Greece.
118Georgian Inst Publ Affairs, Dept Environm Management & Policy, Tbilisi, Georgia.
119Flemish Inst Technol Res, Mol, Belgium.
120KULeuven, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Fac BioSci Engn, Leuven, Belgium.
121Max Planck Inst Biogeochem, Dept Biogeochem Signals, Jena, Germany.
122Rothamsted Res, Sustainable Agr Sci Dept, Harpenden, Herts, England.
123Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Trondheim, Norway.
124Univ Edinburgh, Biodivers Wildlife & Ecosyst Hlth Biomed Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
125Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden.
126Univ Hong Kong, Sch Biol Sci, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
127Insubria Univ, Dept Theoret & Appl Sci, Varese, Italy.
128CIRAD, UMR Eco & Sols, Montpellier, France.
129Univ Montpellier, Montpellier SupAgro, INRAE, CIRAD,IRD,UMR Eco & Sols, Montpellier, France.
130Senckenberg Res Inst, Gelnhausen, Germany.
131Nat Hist Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany.
132Univ Duisburg Essen, Fac Biol, Essen, Germany.
133Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol Geobot & Bot Garden, Halle, Saale, Germany.
134Univ Bergen, Dept Biol Sci, Bergen, Norway.
135Univ Bergen, Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
136Univ Kashmir, Ctr Biodivers & Taxon, Dept Bot, Srinagar, India.
137Univ Innsbruck, Dept Ecol, Innsbruck, Austria.
138Univ Bordeaux, BIOGECO, INRAE, Cestas, France.
139Heathland Ctr, Alver, Norway.
140Univ Liege, Fac Gembloux Agrobio Tech, TERRA Teaching & Res Ctr, Gembloux, Belgium.
141ZHAW Zurich Univ Appl Sci, Inst Nat Resource Sci, Vegetat Ecol, Gruental, Switzerland.
142Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci Vienna BOKU, Inst Bot, Vienna, Austria.
143Ctr Agrometeorol Res ZAMF, German Meteorol Serv DWD, Braunschweig, Germany.
144Mem Univ, Dept Biol, St John, NF, Canada.
145Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
146Univ Zaragoza, Dept Geog, Zaragoza, Spain.
147HAWK Univ Appl Sci & Arts, Fac Resource Management, Gottingen, Germany.
148Georg August Univ Gottingen, Albrecht von Haller Inst Plant Sci, Plant Ecol, Gottingen, Germany.
149Aarhus Univ, Dept Ecosci & Arctic Res Ctr, Ronde, Denmark.
150Masaryk Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Geog, Brno, Czech Republic.
151Shinshu Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan.
152Aarhus Univ, Dept Ecosci & Arctic Res Ctr, Roskilde, Denmark.
153Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Umea, Sweden.
154Forest Res Inst, Dept Silviculture & Forest Tree Genet, Raszyn, Poland.
155Bayreuth Ctr Ecol & Environm Res, Bayreuth, Germany.
156Pyrenean Inst Ecol, ARAID IPE CSIC, Avda Llano de la Victoria, Aragon, Spain.
157Univ Iceland, Life & Environm Sci, Reykjavik, Iceland.
158Univ Bristol, Sch Biol Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
159Univ Stirling, Fac Nat Sci Biol & Environm Sci, Stirling, Scotland.
160Czech Univ Life Sci Prague, Fac Environm Sci, Prague 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
161Lund Univ, Ctr Environm & Climate Sci, Lund, Sweden.
162Univ Gottingen, Bioclimatol, Gottingen, Germany.
163Environm Agcy Austria, Vienna, Austria.
164Inst Ecol & Bot, Ctr Ecol Res, Vacratot, Hungary.
165Univ Greifswald, Inst Bot & Landscape Ecol, Expt Plant Ecol, Greifswald, Germany.
166Austrian Acad Sci OAW, Inst Interdisciplinary Mt Res, GLORIA Coordinat, Vienna, Austria.
167Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Integrat Biol & Biodivers Res, Vienna, Austria.
168Univ Ctr Svalbard UNIS, Dept Arctic Biol, Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway.
169Montana State Univ, Dept Land Resources & Environm Sci, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA.
170Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Ctr Polar Ecol, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.
171Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
172Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Terr Ecol Unit, Ghent, Belgium.
173Finnish Meteorol Inst, Climate Syst Res, Helsinki, Finland.
174Univ Helsinki, Fac Sci, INAR Inst Atmospher & Earth Syst Res Phys, Helsinki, Finland.
175Univ Granada, Interuniv Inst Earth Syst Res, Granada, Spain.
176CNR Inst Agr & Forestry Syst Mediterranean, Naples, Italy.
177Tech Univ Zvolen, Fac Forestry, Zvolen, Slovakia.
178Open Univ Cyprus, Sch Pure & Appl Sci, Environm Conservat & Management Programme, Latsia, Cyprus.
179Aarhus Univ, Dept Biol, Aarhus C, Denmark.
180Aarhus Inst Adv Studies, AIAS Hoegh Guldbergs Gade 6B, Aarhus, Denmark.
181Mendel Univ Brno, Fac Forestry & Wood Technol, Dept Forest Bot Dendrol & Geobiocoenol, Brno, Czech Republic.
182Odesa Natl II Mechnikov Univ, Reg Ctr Integrated Environm Monitoring, Odesa, Ukraine.
183Aarhus Univ, Dept Agroecol, Tjele, Denmark.
184NGO New Energy, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
185Inst Nacl de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Coordenacao Dinam Ambiental, Biol Dynam Forest Fragments Project, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.
186Univ Antwerp, Dept Biol, Antwerp, Belgium.
187Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
188Univ British Columbia, Biodivers Res Ctr, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
189Dept Environm, Antwerp, Province Of Ant, Belgium.
190Russian Acad Sci, Ural Div, Inst Plant & Anim Ecol, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
191Univ Pavia, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Pavia, Italy.
192Free Univ Bolzano, Fac Sci & Technol, Bolzano, Italy.
193Univ Freiburg, Chair Geobot, Freiburg, Germany.
194UNSW Sydney, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Ctr Ecosyst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
195Univ Seville, Dept Plant Biol & Ecol, Seville, Spain.
196Washington Univ, Dept Biol, Campus Box 1137, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
197Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Biol, Dept Anim Biol, Campinas, Brazil.
198CNR, Inst BioEcon, Bologna, Italy.
199Carleton Univ, Natl Wildlife Res Ctr, Environm & Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
200Deakin Univ, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Burwood, Vic, Australia.
201Eurac Res, Inst Alpine Environm, Bolzano, Italy.
202Univ Hohenheim, Inst Biol, Dept Mol Bot, Stuttgart, Germany.
203Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Inst Matemat Aplicada San Luis, IMASL, San Luis, Argentina.
204Univ Nacl San Luis, San Luis, Argentina.
205Catedra Climatol Agr FCA UNER, Entre Rios, Argentina.
206Univ Nacl Comahue, INIBIOMA, Grp Ecol Invas, CONICET, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.
207Global Ecol Unit CREAF CSIC UAB, CSIC, Bellaterra, Spain.
208CREAF, Barcelona, Spain.
209Mt Moon Univ, Ft Portal, Uganda.
210Natl Agr Res Org, Mbarara Zonal Agr Res & Dev Inst, Mbarara, Uganda.
211Poznan Univ Life Sci, Fac Environm Engn & Mech Engn, Dept Construct & Geoengn, Lab Meteorol, Poznan, Poland.
212Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Lund, Sweden.
213Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
214V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
215Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
216Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark
217Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas (LIB), Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
218Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Santiago, Chile
219GLORIA Coordination, Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW) & Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
220Global Change Research Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
221Department of Biology and Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA
222Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College, Ascot, Berkshire, UK
223Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden
224Landscape Ecology, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
225Unit of Land Change Science, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
226Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA
227CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF- CSIC-UAB, Bellaterra, Spain
229Institute of Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Průhonice, Czech Republic
230Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences Fisheries and Economics, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
231Department of Arctic Biology, The University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS), Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway
232Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
233School of Ecology and Environment Studies, Nalanda University, Rajgir, India
234School of Biosciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
235CESAM & Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
236Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment - University of Padua, Legnaro, Italy
237Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
238Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
239Research Group PLECO (Plants and Ecosystems), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium
240Univ. Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, EDYTEM, Chambéry, France
241CREAF, E08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), Spain
242Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
243Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
244Department of Ecology and Biogeography, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
245Centre for Climate Change Research, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
246A. Borza Botanic Garden, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
247Faculty of Biology and Geology, Department of Taxonomy and Ecology, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
248E. G. Racoviță Institute, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
249Centre for Sustainable Ecosystem Solutions, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
250Securing Antarctica's Environmental Future, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Life Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
251German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
252Institute of Biology / Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
253Institute of Biology, Department of Molecular Botany, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
254University of Applied Sciences Trier, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, Birkenfeld, Germany
255Université de Rennes, CNRS, EcoBio (Ecosystèmes, biodiversité, évolution) - UMR 6553, Rennes, France
256Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France
257Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
258WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos Dorf, Switzerland
259Climate Change, Extremes and Natural Hazards in Alpine Regions Research Center CERC, Davos Dorf, Switzerland
260Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud Institute for Environmental and Biological Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
261Department of Biological Sciences and the Environmental Change Initiative, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA
262Swiss National Park, Chastè Planta-Wildenberg, Zernez, Switzerland
263Remote Sensing Laboratories, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
264CIRAD, UMR Eco&Sols, Dakar, Senegal
265Eco&Sols, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, IRD, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France
266LMI IESOL, Centre IRD-ISRA de Bel Air, Dakar, Senegal
267Parc national des Ecrins - Domaine de Charance, France
268Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Cusco, Perú
269Centro de Investigación de la Biodiversidad Wilhelm L. Johannsen, Cusco, Perú
270Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, PDBFF, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil
271Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
272Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
273Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3): Agrosphere, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
274Chair of Soil Science and Geomorphology, Department of Geosciences, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
275Disturbance Ecology, BayCEER, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
276Department of Geography, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
277Sustainable Agricultural Sciences Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, UK
278Department of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
279Institute for Alpine Environment, Eurac Research, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy
280Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA
281Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Vienna, Austria
282Princeton School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA
283Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRAE, Nancy, France
284Department of Soil Science and Landscape Management, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland
285Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
286Bioclimatology, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
287Dept of Biology, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada
288Terra Nova National Park, Parks Canada Agency, Glovertown, Newfoundland, Canada
289Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
290National Forest Centre, Forest Research Institute Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia
291Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
292Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
293Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
294Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven, Belgium
295Soil Science Department, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa-MG, Brazil
296Departamento de Geociências. Cidade Universitária, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa - PB, Brasil
297Department of Physical Geography, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
298Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California, USA
299Department of Natural History, NTNU University Museum, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
300UMR 7058 CNRS ‘Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés’ (EDYSAN), Univ. de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France
301EnvixLab, Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Termoli, Italy
302Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK), Department of Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
303Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU Swedish Species Information Centre, Uppsala, Sweden
304Faculty for Biology, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
305Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic
306Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
307Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
308Ecosystems and Global Change Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
309Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, partner in the Greifswald Mire Centre, Greifswald, Germany
310Foundation J.-M. Aubert, Champex-Lac, Switzerland
311Département de Botanique et Biologie végétale, Université de Genève, Chambésy, Switzerland
312School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
313Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK
314Plant Ecology Group, Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
315Center for Sustainable Landscapes Under Global Change, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark
316Center for Biodiversity Dynamics in a Changing World, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark
317Center for Systematic Biology, Biodiversity and Bioresources - 3B, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
318Northern Environmental Geoscience Laboratory, Department of Geography and Planning, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
319Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki, Finland
320Finnish Meteorological Inst, Helsinki, Finland
321Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan
322Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia
323Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia
324Nature Research Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania
325Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of Construction and Geoengineering, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland
326Institute of Biological Research Cluj-Napoca, National Institute of Research and Development for Biological Sciences, Bucharest, Romania
327CNR Institute for BioEconomy, Firenze, Italy
328The Ecosystem Management Research Group (ECOBE), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk (Antwerpen), Belgium
329Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Department of Biology, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium
330Department of Biological Sciences and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
331Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium
332A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
333Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, the Netherlands
334Plant Ecology and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands
335Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
336CAVElab - Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology, Department of Environment, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium
337Earth Surface Processes Team, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
338Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, IPE-CSIC. Av. Llano de la Victoria, Jaca (Huesca), Spain
339CNR - Institute for Agricultural and Forestry Systems in the Mediterranean, Portici, Italy
340Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, Faculty of Geosciences and Environment, University of Lausanne, Géopolis, Switzerland
341Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden
342School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
343Laboratory, Department of Geography and Planning, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
344Plant Ecology, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
345Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague 6 - Suchdol, Czech Republic
346Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Wrecclesham, Farnham, UK
347INRAE, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, UMR 1391 ISPA, Villenave d'Ornon, France
348Forest Research, Northern Research Station, Roslin, UK
349Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, P.R. China
350MOE Key Laboratory of Geographical Processes and Ecological Security in Changbai Mountains, School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China
351High Meadows Environmental Institute, Princeton University, New Jersey, USA
352Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
353Ecological-Botanical Gardens, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
354Key Laboratory of Geographical Processes and Ecological Security in Changbai Mountains, Ministry of Education, School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, China
|Online Access:||PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.7 MB)|
|Persistent link:|| http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2022092360045
John Wiley & Sons,
|Publish Date:|| 2022-09-23
Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km² resolution for 0‐5 and 5‐15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1‐km² pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world’s major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10° degrees C (mean = 3.0 +/‐ 2.1° degrees C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 +/‐2.3° degrees C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (‐0.7 +/‐ 2.3° degrees C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.
Global change biology
|Pages:||3110 - 3144|
|Type of Publication:||
A1 Journal article – refereed
|Field of Science:||
1172 Environmental sciences
JJL received funding from the Research Foundation Flanders (grant nr. 12P1819N). The project received funding from the Research Foundation Flanders (grants nrs, G018919N, W001919N). JVDH and TWC received funding from DOB Ecology. JA received funding from the University of Helsinki, Faculty of Science (MICROCLIM, grant nr. 7510145) and Academy of Finland Flagship (grant no. 337552). PDF, CM and PV received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC Starting Grant FORMICA 757833). JK received funding from the Arctic Interactions at the University of Oulu and Academy of Finland (318930, Profi 4), Maaja vesitekniikan tuki ry., Tiina and Antti Herlin Foundation, Nordenskiold Samfundet and Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. MK received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). TWC received funding from National Geographic Society grant no. 9480-14 and WW-240R-17. MA received funding from CISSC (program ICRP (grant nr:2397) and INSF (grant nr: 96005914). The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is supported by the Scottish Government's Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division. JMA received funding from the Funding Org. Qatar Petroleum Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (grant no. 678841) and from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant no. 31003A_176044). JA was supported by research grants LTAUSA19137 (program INTER-EXCELLENCE, subprogram INTER-ACTION) provided by Czech Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports and 20-05840Y of the Czech Science Foundation. AA was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (grant FSRZ-2020-0014). SN, UAT, JJA, and JvO received funding from the Independent Research Fund Denmark Research Foundation within the Priority Program SPP-1803 'EarthShape: Earth Surface Shaping by Biota' (grant TI 338/14-1&2 and BA 3843/6-1). PB was supported by grant project VEGA of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Academy of Sciences No. 2/0132/18. Forest Research received funding from the Forestry Commission (climate change research programme). JCB acknowledges the support of Universidad Javeriana. JLBA received funding from the Direccion General de Cambio Climatico del Gobierno de Aragon; JLBA acknowledges fieldwork assistance by Ana Acin, the Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park, and the Servicio de Medio Ambiente de Soria de la Junta de Castilla y Leon. RGB and MPB received funding from BECC - Biodiversity and Ecosystem services in a Changing Climate. MPB received funding from The European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 657627 and The Swedish Research Council FORMAS - future research leaders No. 2016-01187. JB received funding from the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). NB received funding from the SNF (grant numbers 40FA40_154245, 20FI21_148992, 20FI20_173691, 407340_172433) and from the EU (contract no. 774124). ICOS EU research infrastructure. EU FP7 NitroEurope. EU FP7 ECLAIRE.; The authors from Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, PDBFF, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brazil were supported by the MCTI/CNPq/FNDCT - AcAo Transversal no68/2013 - Programa de Grande Escala da Biosfera-Atmosfera na Amazonia - LBA; Project 'Como as florestas da Amazonia Central respondem as variacoes climaticas? Efeitos sobre dinamica florestal e sinergia com a fragmentacAo florestal'. This is the study 829 of the BDFFP Technical Series. to The EUCFLUX Cooperative Research Program and Forest Science and Research Institute-IPEF. NC acknowledges funding by Stelvio National Park. JC was funded by the Spanish government grant CGL2016-78093-R. ANID-FONDECYT 1181745 AND INSTITUTO ANTARTICO CHILENO (INACH FR-0418). SC received funding from the German Research Foundation (grant no. DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). The National Science Foundation, Poland (grant no. UMO-2017/27/B/ST10/02228), within the framework of the 'Carbon dioxide uptake potential of sphagnum peatlands in the context of atmospheric optical parameters and climate changes' (KUSCO2) project. SLC received funding from the South African National Research Foundation and the Australian Research Council. FM, M, KU and MU received funding from Slovak Research and Development Agency (no. APVV-19-0319). Instituto Antartico Chileno (INACH_RT-48_16), Iniciativa Cientifica Milenio Nucleo Milenio de Salmonidos Invasores INVASAL, Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), CONICYT PIA APOYO CCTE AFB170008. PC is supported by NERC core funding to the BAS 'Biodiversity, Evolution and Adaptation Team. EJC received funding from the Norwegian Research Council (grant number 230970). GND was supported by NERC E3 doctoral training partnership grant (NE/L002558/1) at the University of Edinburgh and the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. Monitoring stations on Livingston Island, Antarctica, were funded by different research projects of the Gobern of Spain (PERMAPLANET CTM2009-10165-E; ANTARPERMA CTM2011-15565-E; PERMASNOW CTM2014-52021-R), and the PERMATHERMAL arrangement between the University of Alcala and the Spanish Polar Committee. GN received funding from the Autonomous Province of Bolzano was funded historically in part by ScotNature and NERC National Capability LTS-S: UK-SCAPE; NE/R016429/1). JD was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA17-19376S) and MSMT (LTAUSA18007). ED received funding from the Kempe Foundation (JCK-1112 and JCK-1822). The infrastructure was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the National Sustainability Programme I (NPU I), grant number LO1415 and by the project for national infrastructure support CzeCOS/ICOS Reg. No. LM2015061. NE received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). BE received funding from the GLORIA-EU project no EVK2-CT2000-00056, the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (ITA), from the Tiroler Wissenschaftsfonds and from the University of Innsbruck. RME was supported by funding to the SAFE Project from the Sime Darby Foundation. OF received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). EFP was supported by the Jardin Botanico Atlantico Education and Research (BMBF) in the context of The Future Okavango received funding from ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006.; RAG received funding from Fondecyt 11170516, CONICYT PIA AFB170008 and ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006. MBG received funding from National Parks (DYNBIO, #1656/2015) and The Spanish Research Agency (VULBIMON, #CGL2017-90040-R). MG received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (ICOS-CH Phase 2 20FI20_173691). FG received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG- FZT 118, 202548816). KG and TS received funding from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Research Council (grant = 206/D16053). SG was supported by the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) INFRAIA project eLTER-PLUS (871128), the project LTER-CWN (FFG, F&E Infrastrukturforderung, project number 858024) and the Austrian Climate Research Program (ACRP7 - CentForCSink - KR14AC7K11960). SH and ARB received funding through iDiv funded by the German Research Foundation Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences Ministry of Science, Research and Arts via the project DRIeR (Drought impacts, processes and resilience: making the in-visible visible). LH received funding from International Polar Year, Weston Foundation, and ArcticNet. DH received funding from Natural Sciences and Engineering Council (Canada) (RGPIN-06691). TTH received funding from Independent Research Fund Denmark (grant no. 8021-00423B) and Villum Foundation Republic (projects LM2015078, VAN2020/01 and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001708). KH, CG and CJD received funding from Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University and from the Swedish research council Formas [grant n:o 2014-00530 to KH]. JJ received funding from the Funding Org. Swedish Forest Society Foundation Ministry of Education and Research BMBF (Grant Nr. FKZ 031B0516C SUSALPS) and the Oberfrankenstiftung (Grant Nr. OFS FP00237). ISJ received funding from the Energy Research Fund (NYR-11 - 2019, NYR-18 - 2020). TJ was supported by a UK NERC Independent Research Fellowship Centre of Poland (grant number: 2016/21/B/ST10/02271) and Polish National Centre for Research and Development (grant number: Pol-Nor/203258/31/2013). VK received funding from the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). AAK received funding from MoEFCC, Govt of India (AICOPTAX project F. No. 22018/12/2015/RE/Tax). NK received funding from FORMAS (grants nr. 2018-01781, 2018-02700, 2019-00836), VR, support from the research infrastructure ICOS-SE. BK received funding from the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund of Hungary (grant nr. K128441). Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (projects LM2015078 and CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001708). Project B1-RNM-163-UGR-18-Programa Operativo FEDER 2018, partially funded data collection. Norwegian Research Council (NORKLIMA grants #184912 and #244525) awarded to Vigdis Vandvik. MM received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences (grant nr. RVO 67985939). Project CONICYT-PAI 79170119 and ANID-MPG 190029 awarded to Roy Mackenzie. This work was partly funded by project MIUR PON Cluster OT4CLIMA.; RM received funding from the SNF project number 407340_172433. FM received funding from the Stelvio National Park. PM received funding from AIAS-COFUND fellowship programme supported by the Marie Skodowska- Curie actions under the European Union's Seventh Framework Pro-gramme for Research, Technological development and Demonstration (grant agreement no 609033) and the Aarhus University Research Foundation, Denmark. RM received funding from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (project LTT17033). SM and VM received funding from EU FP6 NitroEurope (grant nr. 17841), EU FP7 ECLAIRE (grant nr. 282910), the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (projects nr. 505, 550, 574, 602), GEF-UNEP funded "Toward INMS" project (grant nr. NEC05348) and ENI CBC BSB PONTOS (grant nr. BSB 889). The authors from Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, PDBFF, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Brazil were supported by the MCTI/CNPq/FNDCT - AcAo Transversal no68/2013 - Programa de Grande Escala da Biosfera-Atmosfera na Amazonia - LBA; Project 'Como as florestas da Amazonia Central respondem as variacoes climaticas? Efeitos sobre dinamica florestal e sinergia com a fragmentacAo florestal'. FJRM was financially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (VICI grant 016.VICI.170.072) and Research Foundation Flanders Research Fund-Exploration (grant nr. NFRF-2018-02043) and NSERC Discovery. MMR received funding from the Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Award (grant nr. DE180100570). JAM received funding from the National Science Foundation (DEB 1557094), International Center for Advanced Renewable Energy and Sustainability Research Center. IM-S was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council through the ShrubTundra Project (NE/M016323/1). MBN received funding from FORMAS, VR, Kempe Foundations support from the research infrastructures ICOS and SITES. MDN received funding from CONICET (grant nr. PIP 112-201501-00609). Spanish Ministry of Science grant PID2019-110521GB-I00 and Catalan government grant 2017-1005. French National Research Agency (ANR) in the frame of the Cluster of Excellence COTE (project HydroBeech, ANR-10-LABX-45). VLIR-OUS, under the Institutional University Coorperation programme (IUC) with Mountains of the Moon University. Project LAS III 77/2017/B entitled: \"Estimation of net carbon dioxide fluxes exchanged between the forest ecosystem on post-agricultural land and between the tornado-damaged forest area and the atmosphere using spectroscopic and numerical methods\", source of funding: General Directorate of State Forests, Warsaw, Poland. Max Planck Society (Germany), RFBR, Krasnoyarsk Territory and Krasnoyarsk Regional Fund of Science, project number 20-45-242908. Estonian Research Council (PRG609), and the European Regional Development Fund (Centre of Excellence EcolChange). Canada-Denmark Arctic Research Station Early Career Scientist Exchange Program, from Polar knowledge Canada (POLAR) and the Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education. AP received funding from Fondecyt 1180205, CONICYT PIA AFB170008 and ANID PIA / BASAL FB210006. MP received funding from the Funding Org. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant nr. 2015.0047), and acknowledges funding from the Swedish Research Council (VR) with contributing research institutes to both the SITES and ICOS Sweden infrastructures.; JP and RO were funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science grant PID2019-110521GB-I00, the fundacion Ramon Areces grant ELEMENTAL-CLIMATE, and the Catalan government grant 2017-1005. MPB received funding from the Svalbard Environmental Protection Fund (grant project number 15/128) and the Research Council of Norway (Arctic Field Grant, project number 269957). RP received funding from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant INTER-TRANSFER nr. LTT20017). LTSER Zone Atelier Alpes; Federation FREE-Alpes. RP received funding from a Humboldt Fellowship for Experienced Researchers. Prokushkin AS and Zyryanov VI contribution has been supported by the RFBR grant #18-05-60203-Arktika. RPu received founding from the Polish National Science Centre (grant project number 2017/27/B/NZ8/00316). ODYSSEE project (ANR-13-ISV7-0004, PN-II-ID-JRP-RO-FR-2012). KR was supported through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. Fieldwork was supported by the Global Challenges program at the University of Wollongong, the ARC the Australian Antarctic Division and INACH. DR was funded by the project SUBANTECO IPEV 136 (French Polar Institute Paul-Emile Victor), Zone Atelier CNRS Antarctique et Terres Australes, SAD Region Bretagne (Project INFLICT), BiodivERsa 2019-2020 BioDivClim call 'ASICS' (ANR-20-EBI5-0004). SAR received funding from the Australian Research Council. NSF grant #1556772 to the University of Notre Dame. Pavia University (Italy). OR received funding from EU-LEAP-Agri (RAMSES II), EU-DESIRA (CASSECS), EU-H2020 (SustainSahel), AGROPOLIS and TOTAL Foundations (DSCATT), CGIAR (GLDC). AR was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant 18-74-10048). Parc national des Ecrins. JS received funding from Vetenskapsradet grant nr (No: 2014-04270), ALTER-net multi-site grant, River LIFE project (LIFE08 NAT/S/000266), Flexpeil. Helmholtz Association long-term research program TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). PS received funding from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (grant nr. N N305 304840). AS acknowledges funding by ETH Zurich project FEVER ETH-27 19-1. LSC received funding from NSERC Canada Graduate Scholarship grant #). Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico Estado do Rio de Janeiro (E26/200.84/2019). ZS received funding from the SRDA (grants nos. APVV-16-0325 and APVV-20-0365) and from the ERDF funding from core budget of ETH Zurich. State excellence Program M-V grant number 641918. The authors from KIT/IMK-IFU acknowledge the funding received within the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) research program of the Helmholtz Association and from the Bavarian Ministry of the Environment and Public Health Foundation), project number 192626868, in the framework of the collaborative German-Indonesian research project CRC 990 (SFB): Rainforest Transformation Systems (Sumatra, Indonesia)'. MS received funding from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant nr. INTER-TRANSFER LTT19018).; TT received funding from the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB Dnr 95/16) and the CASSECS project supported by the European Union. HJDT received funding from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC doctoral training partnership grant NE/L002558/1). German Science Foundation (DFG) GraKo 2010 \"Response\". PDT received funding from the MEMOIRE project Foundation (grant nr. 21-11487S). TU received funding from the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research (CCCDI - UEFISCDI -project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2019-4924 and PN2019-2022/19270201-Ctr. 25N BIODIVERS 3-BIOSERV). AV acknowledge funding from RSF, project 21-14-00209. GFV received funding from the Dutch Research Council NWO (Veni grant, no. 863.14.013). Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Award DE140101611. FGAV received funding from the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) under CEECIND/02509/2018, CESAM the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020. Ordesa y Monte Perdido National Park. MVI received funding from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through a doctoral grant (FPU17/05869). JW received funding from the Czech Science Foundation (grant nr. 20-28119S) and the Czech Academy of Sciences Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) and the de Giacomi foundation. YY received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41861134039 and 41941015). ZY received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nr. 41877458). FZ received funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant nr. 172198 and 193645). PZ received funding from the Funding Org. Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (grant no. 2015.0047). JL received funding from (i) the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), under the framework of the young investigators (JCJC) funding instrument (ANR JCJC Grant project NoANR-19-CE32-0005-01: IMPRINT) (ii) the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) (Defi INFINITI 2018: MORFO); and the Structure Federative de Recherche (SFR) Condorcet (FR CNRS 3417: CREUSE). Fieldwork in the Arctic got facilitated by funding from the EU INTERACT program. SN, UAT, JJA and JvO would like to thank the field team of the Vegetation Dynamics group for their efforts and hard work. We acknowledge Dominique Tristan for letting access to the field. For the logistic support the crew of INACH and Gabriel de Castilla Station team on Deception Island. We thank the Inuvialuit and Kluane First Nations for the opportunity to work on their land. MAdP acknowledges fieldwork assistance and logistics support to Unidad de Tecnologia Marina CSIC, and the crew of Juan Carlos I and Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic Stations, as well as to the different colleagues from UAH that helped on the instrument maintenance. ERF acknowledges fieldwork assistance by Martin Heggli. MBG acknowledges fieldwork and technical assistance by P Abadia, C Benede, P Bravo, J Gomez, M Grasa, R Jimenez, H Miranda, B Ponz, J Revilla and P Tejero and the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park staff.; LH acknowledges field assistance by John Jacobs, Andrew Trant, Robert Way, Darroch Whitaker; we acknowledge the Inuit of Nunatsiavut, and the Co-management Board of Torngat Mountains National Park for their support of this project and acknowledge that the field research was conducted on their traditional lands. We thank our many bear guides, especially Boonie, Eli, Herman, John and Maria Merkuratsuk. AAK acknowledges field support of Akhtar Malik, Rameez Ahmad. Part of microclimatic records from Saxony was funded by the Saxon Switzerland National Park Administration. Tyson Research Center. JP acknowledges field support of Emmanuel Malet Practical help: Roel H. Janssen, N. Huig, E. Bakker, Schools in the tepaseforsoket, Forskar fredag, Erik Herberg. The support by the Bavarian Forest National Park administration is highly appreciated. LvdB acknowledges CONAF and onsite support from the park rangers from PN Pan de Azucar, PN La Campana, PN Nahuelbuta and from communidad agricola Quebrada de Talca. JL and FS acknowledge Manuel Nicolas and all forest officers from the Office National des Forets (ONF) who are in charge of the RENECOFOR network and who provided help and local support for the installation and maintenance of temperature loggers in the field.
© 2022 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.