University of Oulu

Haataja, E., Dindar, M., Malmberg, J., & Järvelä, S. (2022). Individuals in a group: Metacognitive and regulatory predictors of learning achievement in collaborative learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 96, 102146.

Individuals in a group : metacognitive and regulatory predictors of learning achievement in collaborative learning

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Author: Haataja, Eetu1; Dindar, Muhterem1; Malmberg, Jonna1;
Organizations: 1University of Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-09-29


Self-regulated learning theory acknowledges the importance of an individual’s metacognitive monitoring and group-level regulation for learning achievement in collaborative learning. However, very few studies have empirically investigated the interplay of these factors. This study aimed to investigate how groups’ metacognitive interactions, group-level regulation, and individuals’ metacognitive monitoring accuracy together predict students’ learning achievement. Thirty groups of secondary school students (n = 94) attended a five-week physics course involving four 90-min lessons. Each lesson included a collaborative learning session in which the students solved physics problems in groups of three. After each session, the students filled out a quiz that evaluated their learning of the core concepts related to each lesson. The students’ collaborative learning was video-recorded using 360-degree cameras. First, the groups’ metacognitive interaction, co-regulation (CoRL), and socially shared regulation (SSRL) during collaborative learning were coded from the video data. Second, the students’ metacognitive monitoring accuracy was determined in relation to quizzes presented at the end of each collaborative session. Each student’s learning achievement was assessed at the end of the course with an individual written exam. Bayesian multilevel models were used to analyze the nested data. The results showed that the frequency of metacognitive interaction was positively related to learning achievement. However, the relation between CoRL and learning achievement was moderated by monitoring accuracy and metacognitive interaction. The relation between CoRL and achievement was positive when coupled with a high frequency of metacognitive interactions but negative under a low frequency of metacognitive interactions. In addition, in line with theory, the students with lower monitoring accuracy achieved higher learning when CoRL was frequent in a group. Due to the low occurrence of SSRL, its relation with learning achievement could not be analyzed. No reliable evidence for the relation between monitoring accuracy and learning achievement was found. The results highlighted the complex interplay of individual-and group-level factors related to collaborative learning outcomes.

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Series: Learning and individual differences
ISSN: 1041-6080
ISSN-E: 1873-3425
ISSN-L: 1041-6080
Volume: 96
Article number: 102146
DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2022.102146
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland [Grant numbers, 324381, 308809, 297686] and University of Oulu. Oulu University LeaF research infrastructure has been used in the data collection of this study.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 324381
Detailed Information: 324381 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
308809 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
297686 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (