University of Oulu

Pakanen, V.-M., Koivula, K., Doligez, B., Flodin, L.-Å., Pauliny, A., Rönkä, N. and Blomqvist, D. (2022), Natal dispersal does not entail survival costs but is linked to breeding dispersal in a migratory shorebird, the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii. Oikos, 2022: e08951.

Natal dispersal does not entail survival costs but is linked to breeding dispersal in a migratory shorebird, the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii

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Author: Pakanen, Veli-Matti1,2; Koivula, Kari1; Doligez, Blandine3;
Organizations: 1Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Dept of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
3CNRS, Univ. Lyon 1, Dept of Biometry and Evolutionary Biology, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France
4Rannevägen 12, Varberg, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-10


The costs and benefits of dispersal are often assessed by comparing fitness between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals. Importantly, individuals that disperse between their natal and first breeding site may subsequently be more likely to disperse between breeding sites compared to those that remained philopatric to their natal site. Such within-individual consistency in dispersal behaviour can bias local survival estimation, and thus the survival comparison between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals, if breeding dispersal leads to permanent emigration from the study area. We examined whether adult survival correlates with natal dispersal in a migratory shorebird, the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii, in two isolated patchy populations where permanent emigration is expected to be extremely rare. To assess whether local adult survival could be biased by non-random breeding dispersal, we analysed between-patch breeding dispersal probability and quantified within-individual consistency in dispersal. Among females, natal dispersers were more likely to disperse again as adults compared to non-dispersers, while no difference was observed in males which were always highly site faithful. Yet, adult survival did not differ between natal dispersing and non-dispersing individuals in either sex. Breeding dispersal probability was higher in failed compared to successful breeders. Breeding dispersal often resulted in dispersal back to the natal patch, i.e. delayed natal philopatry. Our results suggest no survival costs of dispersal after first reproduction. Despite individual consistency, survival estimates of dispersing individuals were not biased because nearly all available breeding habitat was covered. We show that consistency in dispersal can occur even in site faithful species like the southern dunlin. Studies of the effects of dispersal on survival should therefore account for within-individual consistency in dispersal if not all available breeding habitat is monitored in open populations. In particular, delayed natal philopatry may lead to biased local survival estimates for immigrants when compared with philopatric individuals.

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Series: Oikos
ISSN: 0030-1299
ISSN-E: 1600-0706
ISSN-L: 0030-1299
Volume: 2022
Issue: 8
Article number: e08951
DOI: 10.1111/oik.08951
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
Funding: The Finnish study was funded by the Academy of Finland (128384, KK and 278759, VMP), The Finnish Foundation for Nature Conservation (VMP), the Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, Finland (NR), Finnish Cultural Foundation (VMP), the Finnish Environment Institute (KK), the Emil Aaltonen Foundation (NR and VMP), the Kone Foundation (VMP), the University of Oulu Scholarship Foundation (NR) and the Tauno Tönning Foundation (VMP). The Swedish study was supported by Formas (21.5/2002-1037, 217-2005-817 and 215-2009-463, DB), funding from Oscar och Lili Lamms Minne (FO2009-0007 and FO2012-0039, AP), Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare (DB), Carl Tryggers Stiftelse (CTS 09:294, AP), Stiftelsen Lars Hiertas Minne (AP), as well as by the County Administration Board of Halland, Sweden.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 278759
Detailed Information: 278759 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
128384 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Data are available from the Dryad Digital Repository: <> (Pakanen et al. 2022).
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Oikos published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Society Oikos. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.