University of Oulu

Fernández-Catalá, J., Greco, R., Navlani-García, M., Cao, W., Berenguer-Murcia, Á., & Cazorla-Amorós, D. (2022). g-C3N4-Based Direct Z-Scheme Photocatalysts for Environmental Applications. Catalysts, 12(10), 1137.

g-C₃N₄-based direct Z-Scheme photocatalysts for environmental applications

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Author: Fernández-Catalá, Javier1,2; Greco, Rossella2; Navlani-García, Miriam1;
Organizations: 1Inorganic Chemistry Department, Materials Science Institute, University of Alicante, Ap. 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
2Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 6.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-10


Photocatalysis represents a promising technology that might alleviate the current environmental crisis. One of the most representative photocatalysts is graphitic carbon nitride (g-C₃N₄) due to its stability, cost-effectiveness, facile synthesis procedure, and absorption properties in visible light. Nevertheless, pristine g-C₃N₄ still exhibits low photoactivity due to the rapid recombination of photo-induced electron-hole (e⁻-h⁺) pairs. To solve this drawback, Z-scheme photocatalysts based on g-C₃N₄ are superior alternatives since these systems present the same band configuration but follow a different charge carrier recombination mechanism. To contextualize the topic, the main drawbacks of using g-C₃N₄ as a photocatalyst in environmental applications are mentioned in this review. Then, the basic concepts of the Z-scheme and the synthesis and characterization of the Z-scheme based on g-C₃N₄ are addressed to obtain novel systems with suitable photocatalytic activity in environmental applications (pollutant abatement, H₂ production, and CO₂ reduction). Focusing on the applications of the Z-scheme based on g-C₃N₄, the most representative examples of these systems are referred to, analyzed, and commented on in the main text. To conclude this review, an outlook of the future challenges and prospects of g-C₃N₄-based Z-scheme photocatalysts is addressed.

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Series: Catalysts
ISSN: 2073-4344
ISSN-E: 2073-4344
ISSN-L: 2073-4344
Volume: 12
Issue: 10
Article number: 1137
DOI: 10.3390/catal12101137
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 221 Nanotechnology
Funding: This research was funded by European Union-Next Generation EU, MINECO, and University of Alicante: MARSALAS21-09, Generalitat Valenciana: CDEIGENT/2018/027, University of Alicante: GRE20-19-A. PID2021-123079OB-I00 project funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and “ERDF A way of making Europe”, European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme: Grant Agreement 101002219 and Generalitat Valenciana: Proyecto Prometeo CIPROM/2021/70.
EU Grant Number: (101002219) CATCH - Cross-dimensional Activation of Two-Dimensional Semiconductors for Photocatalytic Heterojunctions
Copyright information: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (