University of Oulu

Golubenko, K., Rozanov, E., Kovaltsov, G., & Usoskin, I. (2022). Zonal mean distribution of cosmogenic isotope (7Be, 10Be, 14C, and 36Cl) production in stratosphere and troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127, e2022JD036726.

Zonal mean distribution of cosmogenic isotope (⁷Be, ¹⁰Be, ¹⁴C, and ³⁶Cl) production in stratosphere and troposphere

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Author: Golubenko, K.1; Rozanov, E.2,3; Kovaltsov, G.4;
Organizations: 1Space Climate Research Unit and Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos and World Radiation Center, Davos, Switzerland
3St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
4Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-12


Cosmogenic isotopes are produced by cosmic rays mostly in the middle-low atmosphere and then take part in the complicated processes of atmospheric transport and deposition that are different for the stratosphere and troposphere. Cosmogenic isotopes are continuously produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with a hard energy spectrum and sporadically by solar energetic particles (SEPs) with much softer energy spectra. The partition of the isotope production between the stratosphere and troposphere in different latitudinal zones depends on the spectrum of cosmic rays, geomagnetic shielding, and the tropopause shape. The exact zonal distribution of the isotope production is not accurately known and needs to be precisely modeled as well as the isotopes’ transport and deposition in climatic reconstruction. Here, we present the results of the computations of 14C, 36Cl, 10Be, and 7Be cosmogenic isotope production in the Earth’s atmosphere using the CRAC model. We provide zonal mean production rates separately for the stratosphere and troposphere in three latitudinal zones: tropical (0°–30°), midlatitude (30°–60°), and polar (60°–90°). The computations were performed for four scenarios: (a) production by GCR during a solar-cycle minimum; (b) production by GCR during a solar-cycle maximum; (c) SEP event with the hardest known spectrum (GLE#5); and (d) the strongest known soft-spectrum SEP event (GLE#24). The results confirm that, while all the latitudinal zones are relatively important for the isotopes produced by GCR, isotope production by SEPs in the tropical zone is small and can be neglected. The results are coupled to the SOCOL-AER2-BE chemistry-climate model and can be used for a simplified parametric modeling of the isotopes’ atmospheric transport, for the conditions typical for the Holocene.

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Atmospheres
ISSN: 2169-897X
ISSN-E: 2169-8996
ISSN-L: 2169-897X
Volume: 127
Issue: 16
Article number: e2022JD036726
DOI: 10.1029/2022jd036726
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was partly supported by the Academy of Finland (Projects ESPERA no. 321882) and the Vilho, Yrjö, and Kalle Väisälä Foundation of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters (scholarship of KG). The maintenance and development of the SOCOL model is supported by SNSF Grant 200020-182239 (POLE). Eugene Rozanov work on the SOCOL model adaptation and application was partly performed in the SPbSU “Ozone Layer and Upper Atmosphere Research laboratory” supported by grant from Ministry of Science and Higher Education under agreement 075-15-2021-583 and RSF Grant 20-67-46016. The work benefited from the discussions in the framework of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) team 510 “SEESUP—Solar Extreme Events: Setting Up a Paradigm."
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.