University of Oulu

Segura, I.P., Luukkonen, T., Yliniemi, J. et al. Comparison of One-Part and Two-Part Alkali-Activated Metakaolin and Blast Furnace Slag. J. Sustain. Metall. 8, 1816–1830 (2022).

Comparison of one-part and two-part alkali-activated metakaolin and blast furnace slag

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Author: Segura, Isabel Pol1; Luukkonen, Tero2; Yliniemi, Juho2;
Organizations: 1Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2Department of Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90570, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Research and Development, FLSmidth, 2500, Valby, Denmark
4NMR Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-17


One-part alkali-activated materials prepared with solid-form alkali activator are gaining attention in the construction industry, as they are an easier and safer approach for cast-in-situ applications in comparison with two-part approach (i.e., involving the use of alkali-activator solutions). The present study compares the one-part and conventional two-part mixing methods with two aluminosilicate precursors, metakaolin and ground granulated blast-furnace slag, using identical mix designs (in terms of molar ratios of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Na₂O) with both preparation methods. The results revealed that using one-part mix delays the setting time, increases the heat of reaction, decreases the shrinkage, and reaches between 80 and 85% of the compressive strength of the two-part mix. In addition, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis showed no major differences between one- and two-part. However, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated that the extent of reaction in two-part alkali-activated mixes is higher than for one-part.

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Series: Journal of sustainable metallurgy
ISSN: 2199-3823
ISSN-E: 2199-3831
ISSN-L: 2199-3823
Volume: 8
Pages: 1816 - 1830
DOI: 10.1007/s40831-022-00606-9
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work was supported by the ProBu project: Process Technology for Sustainable Building Materials Production (Grant Number: 8055-00014B) funded by Innovation Fund Denmark, as well as FLSmidth A/S, Rockwool International A/S and Technical University of Denmark. Tero Luukkonen and Juho Yliniemi wish to acknowledge funding from the Academy of Finland (Grant Numbers 326291 and 322786, respectively).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322786
Detailed Information: 322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
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