University of Oulu

Denissoff, A., Mustonen, A., Miettunen, J., Alakokkare, A.-E., Veijola, J., Scott, J. G., Sami, M. B., & Niemelä, S. (2022). Trajectories of adolescent psychotic-like experiences and early cannabis exposure: Results from a Finnish Birth Cohort Study. Schizophrenia Research, 246, 95–102.

Trajectories of adolescent psychotic-like experiences and early cannabis exposure : results from a Finnish Birth Cohort Study

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Author: Denissoff, Alexander1,2; Mustonen, Antti3,4; Miettunen, Jouko5,6;
Organizations: 1University of Turku, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Turku, Finland
2Addiction Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
3Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
4Department of Psychiatry, Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland
5Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
6Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
7QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Qld, Australia
8Metro North Mental Health Service, Herston, Qld, Australia
9Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Wacol, Qld, Australia
10Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
11Nottinghamshire Healthcare Trust, Nottingham, UK
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-18


Background: Longitudinal studies examining the effect of cannabis exposure (CE) on the prognosis of adolescents with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are scarce. We examined trajectories of mental health in adolescents with PLEs and cannabis exposure.

Methods: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 6552) with linkage to nationwide register data was used. Information on lifetime cannabis exposure was collected when participants were aged 15/16. Register-based outcome data on diagnoses made in clinical practice were obtained until age 33. Logistic regression was used to study the association of PLE/CE patterns and subsequent psychiatric disorders. The group with neither PLEs nor CE was utilized as the reference group. Parental psychiatric disorders, family structure, sex, frequent alcohol intoxications, daily smoking and illicit substance use other than cannabis were adjusted for.

Results: In all, 6552 subjects (49.2 % males) were included in analysis. PLEs with cannabis exposure were associated with any psychiatric disorder (OR = 2.59; 95 % CI 1.82–3.68), psychotic disorders (OR = 3.86; 95 % CI 1.83–8.11), mood disorders (OR 4.07; 95 % CI 2.74–6.04), depressive disorders (OR = 4.35; 95 % CI 2.93–6.48), anxiety disorders (OR = 2.06; 95 % CI 1.34–3.17) and substance use disorders (OR = 2.26; 95 % CI 1.13–4.50) compared to reference group. Effect sizes were greater for group with both PLEs and cannabis use than for group with PLEs only.

Conclusions: Early-onset cannabis use is an adverse prognostic marker for adolescents with PLEs after extensive confounder control including other substance use.

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Series: Schizophrenia research
ISSN: 0920-9964
ISSN-E: 1573-2509
ISSN-L: 0920-9964
Volume: 246
Pages: 95 - 102
DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2022.06.014
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: NFBC1986 received financial support from EU QLG1-CT-2000-01643 (EUROBLCS) Grant no. E51560, NorFA Grant no. 731, 20056, 30167, USA / NIH 2000 G DF682 Grant no. 50945. AD has received funding from Juho Vainio Foundation and Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation. SN has received funding from Sohlberg Foundation and Juho Vainio Foundation. JM has received funding from Juho Vainio Foundation and Yrjö Jahnsson Fondation. For this study, AM has received grants from Emil Aaltonen Foundation, Juho Vainio Foundation, Olvi Foundation, and the Finnish Cultural Foundation.
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (