University of Oulu

Tiainen K, Raitanen J, Strandberg T, Koskinen S, Stenholm S: Type 2 Diabetes as a Predictor of Muscle Strength Decline over 11 years among Men and Women Aged 55 Years and Older. Gerontology 2022;68:635-643. doi: 10.1159/000518268

Type 2 diabetes as a predictor of muscle strength decline over 11 years among men and women aged 55 and older

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Author: Tiainen, Kristina1; Raitanen, Jani1,2; Strandberg, Timo3,4;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Health Sciences and Gerontology Research Center, Tampere University, Finland
2UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Tampere, Finland
3Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Clinicum, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
5Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
6Department of Public Health, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
7Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Karger, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-20


Background: Long-term associations between type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, and muscle strength are obscure in older adults. The aim of this study was to examine type 2 diabetes as a predictor of handgrip strength decline during an 11-year follow-up among men and women aged 55 years.

Methods: We used Finnish population-based Health 2000 Survey and its follow-up measurements in 2011. The study population consisted of 1,200 individuals, aged 55–86 years at baseline. Baseline fasting glucose level or use of diabetes medication was used to categorize the participants into diabetes (≥7.0 mmol/L), prediabetes (≥6.1 mmol/L but <7.0 mmol/L), and nondiabetes (<6.1 mmol/L) groups. Handgrip strength was measured at baseline and during 11-year follow-up.

Results: Mean handgrip strength at baseline did not differ between diabetes groups in men or women. Among men during the 11-year follow-up, decline in muscle strength was significantly greater among diabetes group (−131.5 Newtons [N], 95% confidence interval (CI) −182.7 to −80.4) than nondiabetes group (−98.9 N, 95% CI −139.5 to −58.3) after adjusting for age, education, lifestyle factors, chronic conditions, and diabetes status at follow-up. Among women, muscle strength decline did not differ between diabetes, prediabetes, or nondiabetes groups after adjusting for all potential covariates, the results being −45.0 N (95% CI −73.2 to −16.7), −29.4 N (95% CI −59.7 to 0.9), and −42.3 N (95% CI −70.5 to −14.1), respectively.

Conclusions: The presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with greater muscle strength decline among older men but not among older women.

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Series: Gerontology
ISSN: 0304-324X
ISSN-E: 1423-0003
ISSN-L: 0304-324X
Volume: 68
Issue: 6
Pages: 635 - 643
DOI: 10.1159/000518268
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Copyright information: © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel. This is the accepted manuscript version of an article published by Karger Publishers in Gerontology/2022/68/6/635-643/10.1159/000518268 and available on