University of Oulu

Alizadeh-Haghighi, E., Khaligh, A., Kalantarifard, A., Elbuken, C., & Tuncel, D. (2022). Fabrication of Nanowalled Catalytically Self-Threaded Supramolecular Polyrotaxane Microcapsules Using Droplet Microfluidics. ACS Applied Polymer Materials, 4(7), 4681–4688.

Fabrication of nanowalled catalytically self-threaded supramolecular polyrotaxane microcapsules using droplet microfluidics

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Author: Alizadeh-Haghighi, Elnaz1; Khaligh, Aisan1,2; Kalantarifard, Ali1,1;
Organizations: 1Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
2Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800, Turkey
3Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-21


Micrometer-scale monodisperse droplets are produced to generate nanowalled supramolecular microcapsules using microfluidics for high reproducibility and high-throughput manipulation, efficient material consumption, and control over hierarchical structure, shape, and size. In this study, an optimized microfluidic droplet generation technique and a unique liquid–liquid interfacial polymerization method were applied to fabricate the monodisperse polyrotaxane–based supramolecular microcapsules in a fast and simple way. To minimize the uncertainty due to droplet volume variation, the inlet pressures were supplied from the same source while lowering the interfacial tension and the main channel hydrodynamic resistance, which are critical for high monodispersity. The target polyrotaxane network (PN) was simply formed at the interface of the water and oil phases in ultra-monodisperse microdroplets via the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CB6-AAC) reaction between azido- and alkyne-functionalized tetraphenylporphyrin monomers (TPP-4AZ and TPP-4AL). The thickness of the interfacially assembled PN microcapsules was 20 nm as analyzed by cross-sectional TEM and TEM-EDX techniques. The resultant water-in-oil PN microcapsules were highly monodisperse in size and able to retain target molecules. Here, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G)-loaded PN microcapsules were fabricated, and the release rate of the Rh6G cargo was investigated over time for controlled drug release applications.

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Series: ACS applied polymer materials
ISSN: 2637-6105
ISSN-E: 2637-6105
ISSN-L: 2637-6105
Volume: 4
Issue: 7
Pages: 4681 - 4688
DOI: 10.1021/acsapm.2c00195
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This work was partially supported by the Academy of Finland, NanoEngineered Self-Assembling Vesicle Production Line (NESAV) project grant no. 342448 and The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-TÜBİTAK (KBAG 114Z0195).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 342448
Detailed Information: 342448 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: The Supporting Information is available free of charge at
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.