University of Oulu

Li, J., Mailhiot, S., Kantola, A. M., Niu, H., Sreenivasan, H., Telkki, V.-V., & Kinnunen, P. (2022). Longitudinal single-sided NMR study: Silica-to-alumina ratio changes the reaction mechanism of geopolymer. Cement and Concrete Research, 160, 106921.

Longitudinal single-sided NMR study : silica-to-alumina ratio changes the reaction mechanism of geopolymer

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Author: Li, Jing1,2; Mailhiot, Sarah2; Kantola, Anu M.2;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
2NMR Research Unit, Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2022
Publish Date: 2022-10-24


Characterizing and understanding the mechanisms underlying geopolymerization are critical in achieving the use of sustainable construction material, geopolymer, for widespread commercial production. Non-destructive ¹H NMR relaxometry can provide novel information about geopolymerization as it allows simultaneous detection of where the water goes and how the pore structure changes. Coupled with the development of single-sided NMR devices, NMR measurements are not limited by the specimen size and are therefore able to observe in-situ conditions of geopolymer synthesis. Here, the curing process of metakaolin-based geopolymers was monitored by ¹H relaxometry on a single-sided NMR device. The silica-to-alumina ratio (Si/Al) was found to affect reaction stages of the geopolymerization. After the dissolution of aluminosilicate precursor, the low Si/Al of 1 was found to generate three gelation/polymerization stages as well as a water-binding stage, and two gel phases appeared. When Si/Al varied in 1.5–2.5, two gelation/polymerization stages and only one gel phase was observed.

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Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 160
Article number: 106921
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2022.106921
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work is funded by the University of Oulu Kvantum Institute under Emerging projects program (Zero-CO2 cement concept via phase-separated nano-glass). P.K. acknowledges financial support from Academy of Finland (grant 322085) as well as the University of Oulu & The Academy of Finland Profi5 (326291). V.-V.T. acknowledges financial support from the European Research Council (project number 772110). S.M. acknowledges financial support from Academy of Finland (grant no. 321701) and H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (grant no. 896824). J.L. acknowledges financial support from AURAMO-grant of Finland and Otto A. Malm Foundation.
EU Grant Number: (896824) NMRCement - Zero-CO2 cement concept evaluated with novel Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
(772110) UFLNMR - Ultrafast Laplace NMR
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322085
Detailed Information: 322085 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321701 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (